Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
 
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Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2004) 03, 211 - 219
Research article
A Force-Velocity Relationship and Coordination Patterns in Overarm Throwing
Roland van den Tillaar, Gertjan Ettema

Human Movement Science Section, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

Roland van den Tillaar
✉ Section for Human Movement Science, NTNU, Stedjeåsen 22, 6856 Sogndal, Norway
Email: rolandv@svt.ntnu.no

Received:
24-03-2004 -- Accepted: 03-09-2004 --
Published (online): 01-12-2004

ABSTRACT

A force-velocity relationship in overarm throwing was determined using ball weights varying from 0.2 to 0.8 kg. Seven experienced handball players were filmed at 240 frames per second. Velocity of joints of the upper extremity and ball together with the force on the ball were derived from the data. A statistically significant negative relationship between force and maximal ball velocity, as well as between ball weight and maximal ball velocity was observed. Also, with increase of ball weight the total throwing movement time increased. No significant change in relative timing of the different joints was demonstrated, suggesting that the subjects did not change their “global ”coordination pattern (kinematics) within the tested range of ball weights. A simple model revealed that 67% of ball velocity at ball release was explained by the summation of effects from the velocity of elbow extension and internal rotation of the shoulder. With regard to the upper extremity the internal rotation of the shoulder and elbow extension are two important contributors to the total ball velocity at release.

Key words: Kinematics, handball, ball weight, proximal distal sequence
Key Points
An inverse relationship between load and velocity and a linear force-velocity exists in overarm throwing with ball weights varying from 0.2 to 0.8 kg.
Qualitatively, no changes in coordination pattern (relative timing) occur with increasing ball weight within the tested range of ball weights.
The absolute throwing movement time increased with ball weight.
Quantitatively, with regard to the upper extremity, the internal rotation of the shoulder and elbow extension are two important contributors to the total ball velocity at release.

 


  

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