Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine


Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2017) 16, 44 - 52
Research article
Test Re-Test Reliability of Four Versions of the 3-Cone Test in Non-Athletic Men
Jason G. Langley1,, Robert D. Chetlin

1 Department of Kinesiology and Sport., University of Southern Indiana, USA
2 Department of Sports Medicine, Mercyhurst University, USA

Jason G. Langley
✉ Assistant Professor and Human Performance Lab Coordinator at the University of Southern Indiana, USA

22-09-2016 -- Accepted: 26-12-2016 --
Published (online): 01-03-2017


Until recently, measurement and evaluation in sport science, especially agility testing, has not always included key elements of proper test construction. Often tests are published without reporting reliability and validity analysis for a specific population. The purpose of the present study was to examine the test re-test reliability of four versions of the 3-Cone Test (3CT), and provide guidance on proper test construction for testing agility in athletic populations. Forty male students enrolled in classes in the Department of Physical Education at a mid-Atlantic university participated. On each of test day participants performed 10 trials. In random order, they performed three trials to the right (3CTR, standard test), three to the left (3CTL), and two modified trials (3CTAR and 3CTAL), which included a reactive component in which a visual cue was given to indicate direction. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) indicated a moderate to high reliability for the four tests, 3CTR 0.79 (0.64-0.88, 95%CI), 3CTL 0.73 (0.55-0.85), 3CTAR 0.85(0.74-0.92), and 3CTAL 0.79 (0.64-0.88). Small standard error of the measurement (SEM) was found; range 0.09 to 0.10. Pearson correlations between tests were high (0.82-0.92) on day one as well as day two (0.72-0.85). These results indicate each version of the 3-Cone Test is reliable; however, further tests are needed with specific athletic populations. Only the 3CTAR and 3CTAL are tests of agility due to the inclusion of a reactive component. Future studies examining agility testing and training should incorporate technological elements, including automated timing systems and motion capture analysis. Such instrumentation will allow for optimal design of tests that simulate sport-specific game conditions.

Key words: Measurement, sport, change of direction speed (CODS), methodology
Key Points
The commonly used 3-cone test (upside down “L” to the right”) is a reliable change of direction speed (CODS) test when evaluating collegiate males.
A modification of the CODS 3-cone test (upside down “L” to the left instead of to the right) is also reliable for evaluating collegiate males.
A modification of the 3-cone that includes reaction and a choice of a cut to the left or right remains reliable as now an agility test version in collegiate males.
There are moderate to high correlation between the 4 versions of the tests.
Reaction remains a critical to the design of testing and training agility protocols, and should be investigated similarly to various athletes including novice/expert, male/female, and nearly every sporting event.



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Jason G. Langley, Robert D. Chetlin, (2017) Test Re-Test Reliability of Four Versions of the 3-Cone Test in Non-Athletic Men. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (16), 44 - 52.

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