JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE & MEDICINE
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© Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2007) Suppl. 10 , 152 - 157
29. PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED TO FOOTBALL GAMES
P-066 Motivational traits of Iranian elite soccer players
Masoumeh1 and Hoji Ghasem Amir2
OBJECTIVE Motivation is a one of the important psychological traits, but limited researches have been directed to-ward defining the competitive specific motivational profile of elite soccer players (Heyman, 1992; Raglin, et al., 1990; Stewart & Meyers, 2004). Exploring the psychological nature of elite soccer players may contribute to either the appro-priate selection of athletes or, more importantly, the development of specific training methods designed to take advan-tage of motivational attributes deemed essential for optimal performance. The purpose of this study was to describe Iranian elite male soccer players' motivational characteristics.
METHODS 61 soccer players of senior, youth U-19 (under 19 years old) and U-23 (under 23 years old) national teams who were selected purposively completed the sports attitude inventory (Willis, 1982). The data were grouped by age and primary position played, and were analyzed by descriptive statistics.
RESULTS On the basis of results, the elite players' motivation to achieve success (70.5) was twice as much their moti-vation to avoid failure (34.6) (Figure 1). Moreover, senior national team players (149.2) and midfielders (147.2) had more competitive motivation than other players.
DISCUSSION The fact that older players of senior national team scored higher than younger players on motivation to avoid failure subscale indicated a tendency to be more sensitive to what adults (their coaches) thought than the younger players
Competition, elite, motivation, soccer.
P-067 Concentration performance of soccer referees
Asci1, Emine Caglar2 and Gazanfer Dogu3
OBJECTIVE The ability to direct soccer referees' full attention to appropriate cues in the match is very important for good performance. The precision and the efficacy of their evaluations are based on concentration skills as well as other factors such as knowledge of rules, their physical fitness levels. The aim of this study was to determine concentration performance of soccer referees and compare their concentration performance with regard to league status.
METHODS 213 male soccer referees (Mage=29.19± 4.94) from six status (professional league, PL; professional assis-tant, PLA; A status, AS; B status, BS; C status, CS; & C assistant status, CAS) participated in this study. d2 Test of Attention was administered to 213 soccer referees to measure their concentration performance. d2 test yields concentra-tion performance (CP) & error percentage (E %) scores.
RESULTS The mean CP & E% scores of referees were 191.1(41.3) & 7.8(5.4). The mean CP scores of referees at different league status were ranged from 183.3(35.3) to 198.5(40.2). The highest mean E% was 8.7(5.2). Table 1 shows distribution of referees to quartiles of concentration performance. ANOVA indicated no significant differences in refe-ree's concentration performance among different league status.
1. The distribution of referees with regard to quartiles of total
DISCUSSION In summary, concentration performance of soccer referees is classified as good and did not differ with respect to league status. The concentration scores of referees are higher than 20-34 years old Turkish athletes (Caglar, 2003) & German population (Brickenkamp et al, 1998). Future studies should examine the concentration performance of soccer referees by using sport specific concentration tests.
Concentration, soccer referees.
P-068 Cognitive component of competitive state anxiety in semi professional soccer: A case study
OBJECTIVE A case study approach was used to examine the cognitive component of competitive state anxiety in relation to a 26 year old, male, semi-professional soccer player. There has been a great deal of study in the area of com-petitive state anxiety which is quantitative in nature. This study sought to use a qualitative approach to examine a player's individual competitive state anxiety perspective and compare the findings to relevant literature.
METHODS A semi-structured interview was conducted following a pilot study in line with Breakwell's (1995) five-stage method. Subsequently, inductive content analysis (Patton, 1990) was employed to categorise and analyse the emergent themes.
RESULTS A wide range of topics of cognition including performance, preparation, other (internal) and other (exter-nal). The timing of these cognitions was listed as occurring pre-match, during the match and post-match. The last major category was about how the player attempted to change any negative thoughts into positive (fig1.).
DISCUSSION Three distinct themes emerged from the results of this study. The participant experienced cognitions about a wide range of performance related topics, most regarding preparation. The topics were mostly time dependent in relation to the next/last match. The player focused from team preparation to individual preparation as the training week progressed towards the next match.
Anxiety, coping, semi-professional soccer, qualitative approach.
P-069 Cognitive styles of elite and non-elite women soccer players
OBJECTIVE The cognitive capability of soccer players for present situations is one of the important factors which determine performance. Some studies that investigated the cognitive styles of soccer players from "the field independ-ence" and "the field dependence" perspective (Witkin et al., 1977), reported that the elite players had a tendency for the field dependence, compared to non-elites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive style of women soccer players.
METHODS To determine the cognitive styles of women soccer players Group Embedde-Figures Test (GEFT) was conducted. The subjects were separated into four different groups according to their performance level and their age as national team under 19 years old (N-U19, (n):18), national team of all universities (N-Univ, (n):20), general high school team (G-U19,(n): 18), and general university team (G-Univ, (n): 22).
RESULTS Table 1 shows the mean score of GEFT in each group. ANOVA showed that the elite players (N-U19 and N-Univ) score significantly low (F(1/74)=8.88, p<0.005) compared to the non-elite players (G-U19 and G-Univ). The U19 players scored significantly lower than the university players (F(1/74)=6.54, p<0.05).
1. Mean score of GEFT.
DISCUSSION The results revealed that the higher the performance levels of women soccer players were, the more they had the tendency towards field dependent cognition. Soccer players needed to recognize various situations that corresponded to the surrounding players and pitch situations. As the results of this study indicated, GEFT is effective to evaluate the cognitive style of women soccer players.
Field-dependence/independence, embedded figure test, women soccer, performance
P-070 Motivational tendencies and competitive anxiety in second league football teams
Ziya Koruc1, Nihan Arsan1, Sertan Kagan2 and Serdar Kocaeksi1
OBJECTIVE Football requires not only a high level of physical performance but psychological skills. Spielberger (1966) trait anxiety is a predisposition to perceive certain situations as threatening or non-threatening and to respond to those situations with varying levels of state anxiety. Martens (1977) defined competitive trait anxiety as the relatively stable disposition of an individual to perceive threat in situations. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between football players' competitive anxiety and motivational tendencies. Besides, it was carried out to identify differ-ences in somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety, self confidence and Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT-A) results of teams.
METHODS A voluntary sample, 51 professional soccer players (Turkish Football League Second Division) partici-pated in this study. Pearson Correlation was used to analyse the relationship between SCAT-A results and CSAI-2 and SMS results, MANOVA was used to analyse the differences between SCAT-A (Sport Competition Anxiety Test), CSAI-2(Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2) and SMS (Sport Motivation Scale) results of the two teams.Turkish versions of CSAI-2, SMS, SCAT-A .
1. Correlations between football players' anxiety and motivational
DISCUSSION It was concluded that, there was a significant relationship between competitive anxiety and motivational tendencies of football players.
Motivation, anxiety, CSAI-2, SCAT-A, SMS, football.
P-071 Competitive anxiety and concentration levels of football players
Ziya Koruc1, Nihan Arsan1, Sertan Kagan2 and Serdar Kocaeksi1
OBJECTIVE Concentration is defined as directing one's attention to something. In soccer this will be the specific task at the moment. Concentration is measured by how long the individual can maintain this attention and by how resilient s/he is against negative attention breaking forces or situations. It's expected that when the anxiety levels of players' increases their concentration levels will decreases. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between football players' competition anxiety and concentration levels. Also, it aimed to examine the differences in competitive anxiety of football players whose concentration times were less than 300 sec. and upper from 301 sec.
METHODS Subjects were voluntary 119 football players from two second league teams and three from super league teams. Pearson Moment Correlation was used to analyze the relationship between concentration and anxiety, and MANOVA was used to analyze the differences in competitive anxiety of football players whose concentration times were less than 300 sec. and upper from 301 sec. Instruments were CSAI-2 and GRID.
RESULTS Significant relationship was spotted between self- confidence and concentration level (r = -.197, p< .05). Besides, there wasn't a significant difference between the concentration and CSAI-2 results.
1. Correlations between football players' CSAI-2 results and concentration
Concentration, anxiety, CSAI-2, GRID, football.
P-072 Corporal punishment in football
OBJECTIVE Sports leaders have an important role in promoting good practice in children's sport. Certain types of coaching require a "hands on approach" i.e. it may be necessary to support a child in order to physically demonstrate a particular technique. Instructors combine positive and negative approaches. Sport psychologists agree that the predomi-nant approach should be positive. Before mentioning corporal punishment in football, it is necessary to explain the means of corporal punishment Corporal punishment is the use of physical force with the aim of not injuring but hurting the child in order to control or to straighten out the child's behaviors. In the literature there is not much research consid-ering corporal punishment among coaches in football. Psychological communities in a large-scale looked at both posi-tive and negative behaviors in children that were associated with corporal punishment. The act of corporal punishment is different across parents, varying in frequency, force, and emotional arousement The objective of this study was to analyze the used punishment method, frequency of punishment, how and in which circumference the corporal punish-ment was used in football.
METHODS The early prepared and tested questionnaire was applied on 200 players. that investigated age, the number of performed years, socio-economic status and education level of the parents and trainers of the players and whether they had received any corporal punishment at home, at school or in club teams. Who gave corporal punishment at home, at school or in club teams, the first and last time it was received, its frequency, form and severity was also asked. Additionally, the players were asked whether they had received any other punishment besides corporal punishment.
RESULTS The significance of the collected date was analyzed using standard statistical method. The results showed a direct relation between social economic level of players and frequency of the corporal punishment received at home. In the football teams the trainers used the corporal punishment as a tool of motivation very frequently. There was no dif-ference of age for the players concerning the age, at all age they are subjected to the corporal punishment. The trainers are not aware about the destructive effects of the corporal punishment on the players.
DISCUSSION As a conclusion, Football sports leaders should use positive altitude rather than punishment to motivate the players. Raising the children without giving them corporal punishment will cause both parents and children to ex-perience less stress; therefore, cause the family relations to be calming. Not using corporal punishment in football will serve the real aims of sport; sharing, developing self-esteem, taking responsibility, controlling ambition, and fair-play. During the education of the trainers the damages of corporal punishment should be explained.
Football, corporal punishment.
P-073 Penalty kicks and stress
Miyamoto, Edgard Morya, Marco Bertolassi and Ronald Ranvaud
OBJECTIVE Point of No Return (PNR) was studied in a laboratory simulation of a soccer penalty kick and the mo-ment beyond which the probability of the kicker to respond to an early goalkeeper dive - was <50% (Morya et al 2003). PNR, in quiet and ideal laboratory conditions, was around 250 ms before kicker-ball contact. Although motivation was generally considered to be critical in the performance of professional players in a stressful penalty situation, this prob-lem has been rarely addressed (McGarry and Franks, 2000). The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of a noisy and participative audience on the performance of volunteers in a simulated penalty kick task.
METHODS 21 undergraduate students performed the simulated penalty task as part of a practical on motor control. The image on the computer screen to which participants responded was visible to >70 student spectators, in real time, on a large screen. Participants were divided in two teams, competing as if in a penalty shootout. The audience was en-couraged to support or boo participants as they performed.
As expected, the PNR backed up (from 250 to 290 ms before ball contact).
Unexpectedly, performance under stress saturated at 70% (Fig. 1); i.e.
even if the goalkeeper moved a full 100 ms sooner than necessary for perfect
performance in the laboratory, participants under stress seemed unable
to show 100% performance, putting the ball on the same side as the goalkeeper
on about >30% of the trials.
Anticipation, goalkeeper, penalty kick, point of no return, soccer, stress.