JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE & MEDICINE
 
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Supplementum 10  

Published (Online)   01 February 2007


Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2007) Suppl. 10 , 163 - 168


POSTER PRESENTATONS

31. SCIENTIFIC COACHING

P-082 Opinion of soccer players about off- season in Turkish super league

Surhat Muniroglu and Huseyin Oztekin
University of Ankara, School of Physical Education and Sports

OBJECTIVE The period when soccer players detrarining at the end season is very important because it is not known how soccer players spend this period. The purpose of this study was to search opinions of soccer players about off sea-son in Turkish super league.

METHODS 144 soccer players from Fenerbahce, Trabzonspor Denizlispor, Samsunspor, Genclerbirligi, Ankaragucu, Diyarbakrspor and Caykur Rizespor participated in this study. A questionnaire was developed, with 18 items. The reliability of quastionnaire was 0,84. The following evalations were used in 5 point Likert Scale a)disagree totally, b)disagree, c)not sure, d)agree, e)agree totally

RESULTS Soccer players had some physological and phycholigical loses in off season. They should rest actively and their taining should be descreased. It is necessary to give information to soccer players on how much strenght they lose during off season, and soccer players should spend off season accordingly. Soccer players want to rest and get healed from injuries during off season. At the same time they want to get psychological support. Soccer players don't accept big losses in off season in off season while starting preparation period before season, and they think thet preparation period before season is a waste of time.

DISCUSSION At the end off this research, soccer players in Turkish super leauge evaluated that off season was not an inactive and holiday period. Soccer players have enough information on doing various sport activities and physical preparation in off season period.

KEY WORDS Soccer, off season, player.


P-083 Impact of playing in Champions League on National League results

Carlos Lago-Peas and Joaquin Lago-Ballesteros
University of Vigo

OBJECTIVE In this paper, the impact of playing a Champions League match on the Spanish Football League match scores was analysed of given teams. According to the results of a logit multinominal regression, playing in the Euro-pean Champions League did not decrease the probability of winning in the National Championship. The objetives of this study were to analyze the influence of playing in the European Champions League on the scores of Spanish Foot-ball League teams, and to examine if this impact was different for teams making debut in the European competition.

METHODS The sample consisted of the 184 matches of the Spanish Football League Seasons 2003-2004, 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 of those teams playing the European Champions League. The dependent variable was the scores ob-tained by teams. Five independent variables were included. The difference in the level among teams, playing at home or away, to play or no a match of the CL and if the team was a newcomer.

RESULTS As it can be seen in Table 1, playing in the European Champions League did not reduce the probability of winning in the National Championship. The variables playing at home and level were statistically significant and had the expected coefficient. According to the results displayed in Table 1, playing in the European Champions League did not reduce the probability of winning.

Table 1. The results of teams in the Spanish Football League: the influence of playing the European Champions League

Number of observations 172LR Chi2 (6) 21,15*Pseudo R2 0,06
Notes: Estimation is by maximun-likelihood. Robust Standard Errors in parenthesis.*p<0.01 **p<0.05

DISCUSSION The findings of this empirical analysis showed that playing in the European Champions League did not reduce the probability of winning in the Spanish Football League. In contrast with the general prejudice, playing in the European Champions League did not decrease the probability of winning in the Spanish Football League for teams making debut.

KEY WORDS Result, soccer, champions league, logit multinomial, Spanish football league.


P-084 Influences of ball possession on team performances in FIFA World Cup Ger-many 2006

Carlos Lago-Peas and Ezequiel Rey-Eiras
University of Vigo

OBJECTIVE In this paper, the effects of the possession of the ball on performances of teams in the FIFA World Cup Germany 2006 were analyzed. The research was based on linear regression analysis. Results pointed out that possession was a relevant variable for explaining the performance obtained by teams in matches. The objective of this paper was to examine the effects of the possession of the ball on performances of teams in the FIFA World Cup Germany 2006.

METHODS The sample consisted of 64 matches played in the FIFA World Cup Germany 2006. The dependent vari-able was the performance obtained by teams. The independents variables were the possession of the ball, the difference in the level of teams and the round of the competition. A linear regression model was used to analyze the influence of the performance on the points obtained by teams.

RESULTS All the variables were statistically significant. Possession is statistically significant at the level 0.01. In accordance with the results of the regression model a one-unit increase in possession caused an increase in 0.54 on the performance obtained by teams. The variables level and round were statistically significant at the 0.01 level and had the expected coefficient.

Table 1. Determinants of the performance in the FIFA World Cup Germany 2006.The role of the possession of the ball.

DISCUSSION The main findings of this paper suggested that possession was a relevant variable for explaining the performance obtained by teams in the matches of FIFA World Cup Germany 2006. The influence of the possession on the performance was different in the two rounds of the competition, and the higher the difference between teams the higher the performance for the best team was.

KEY WORDS FIFA World Cup Germany 2006, performance, possession of the ball, football.


P-085 Changes in running economy after two different resistance training programs in soccer players

Athanasios Souglis2, Gregory Bogdanis1, Aggeliki Papaspyrou1, Aristomenis Sotiropoulos1 and Maria Maridaki1
1Department of Sports Medicine & Biology of Physical Activity, Faculty of P.E. and Sports Science, University of Athens, Greece, 1Department of Team Sports, Faculty of P.E. and Sports Science, University of Athens, Greece

OBJECTIVE Maximal strength training for neural adaptations has been shown to improve running economy in soccer players (Hoff and Helgerud, 2002). Although the concept that improvements in strength influenced aerobic endurance performance was widely studied, there is little knowledge regarding the effects of resistance training using other loads on running economy. The purpose of the present study, which had Ethical Committee approval, was to examine the effects of two different resistance training programs (3 times/week, 6 weeks) on running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). One program was designed to promote muscle hypertrophy (H, 4 sets x 12 reps, with 70% 1RM) and the other aimed to increase maximal strength (S, 4 sets x 5 reps, with 90% 1RM).

METHODS Twenty male soccer players (age: 22.51.1 yrs, body mass: 74.11.9 Kg) were divided in two equal groups. VO2max was measured before and after training using an incremental treadmill running test and running econ-omy was calculated at the speed corresponding to the individual ventilatory threshold (VT). Aerobic fitness was also assessed using Hoff's dribbling track test (DTT).

RESULTS Running economy improved by 10.64.7% in the S group but was unchanged in the H group (Table 1). However, VO2max and VT were unchanged in both groups. Speed at VO2max was increased by 4.52.2% and 7.11.8% in the H and S groups and performance in the DDT was similarly increased in both groups (by 9.40.8%).

Table1. Aerobic performance parameters before (BT) and after training (AT) in the hypertrophy (H) and the maximal strength (S) training groups. * P<0.05, ** P<0.01 from before training

DISCUSSION The results suggested that strength hypertrophy training was not a sufficient stimulus for an increase in running economy. The improvement of running economy in the S group may be explained by a possible enhancement of muscle coordination induced by neural adaptations resulting from maximal strength training (Almasbakk & Hoff, 1996).

REFERENCES
Almasbakk et al. (1996) Journal of Applied Physiology 80, 2046-2052.
Hoff et al. (2002) Maximal strength training enhances running economy and aerobic endurance performance. In Foot-ball (soccer): New developments in physical training research. Eds: Hoff J. and Helgerud J. Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology. 7.

KEY WORDS Running economy, efficiency, resistance training.


P-086 Beneficial effects of four months of street football practice on training status and health profile for homeless males

Birgitte Rejkjr Krustrup1 and Anne Marie Winther Petersen2
1University of Copenhagen, Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Denmark, 2University of Copenhagen, Depart-ment of Infectious Diseases and Cmrc, Rigshospitalet, The Centre Of Inflammation And Metabolism, Denmark

OBJECTIVE It is well-established that physical activity is important for musculoskeletal function and cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the health promoting effects of recreational soccer, as most scientific studies have investigated the effects of jogging, swimming and bicycling. The present study investigated the effects of street football training performed twice a week for four months as preparation for the Homeless World Cup 2006 in Cape Town, South Africa. In addition, the heart rate (HR) response to ordinary street football training for this group was determined.

METHODS Thirteen players (19-44 yrs) took part in two weekly 90-min street football training sessions for four months (4v4, pitch 16x22m). Heart rate was recorded during one training session. Body mass, fat percentage (Durnin & Womersley, 1974), fat free body mass, quadriceps muscle mass (Krustrup et al. 2004) and blood pressure were meas-ured and the Yo-Yo IE2 test and 1-min non-dominant leg balance test (Eurofit, 1988) were performed before (BT) and after the intervention (AT).

RESULTS Mean HR was 1544 bpm or 841% of HRmax. HR was 80-90% and >90% HRmax for 302 and 314% of the time. Body mass was unaltered, but fat free body mass was 2.3 kg higher (p<0.05) and fat percentage tended to be lower after the training period. Diastolic blood pressure was 5 mmHg lower (p<0.05), quadriceps mass was 12% higher (p<0.05) and Yo-Yo IE2 performance was 54% better (p<0.05) after training (Table 1).

DISCUSSION This study characterized street football as aerobic moderate and high intensity training (Bangsbo et al. 2006) and provided evidence that regular participation in street football has beneficial effects on training status and health profile for a group of homeless males. Players with poor aerobic power, low muscle mass and mild hypertension, had their physical health profile normalized after 4 months of training.

CONCLUSION In conclusion, players with poor aerobic power, low muscle mass and mild hypertension, had their physical health profile normalized after 4 months of training.

REFERENCES
Bangsbo et al. (2006) Journal of Exercise and Science in Fitness 4, 1-14.
Durnin et al. (1974) The British Journal of Nutrition 32, 77-97.
Eurofit (1988) Italian Nat. Olympic Comm., Rome.
Krustrup et al. (2004) Pflgers Arch 447, 855-866.

KEY WORDS Heart rate, muscle mass, fat percentage, blood pressure, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test.


P-087 Effects of low intensity aerobic training program to maintain aerobic capacity of elite soccer players in mid-season transition period

Seref Cicek and zcan Bizati
Middle East Technical University, Department of Physical Education and Sport, TUR.

OBJECTIVE The athlete loses training benefits within short time. The speed of detraining varies from several weeks to several months. Researchers have noted a sizeable decrease (6-7%) in maximum volume of oxygen, physical work-ing capacity, and total hemoglobin and blood volume following just one week of complete rest. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of two weeks of aerobic low intensity training program on physical charecterisitcs of elite soccer players during mid-break transition period.

METHODS Mid-Break Transition period aerobic low intensity training program (see Table 1) was given to all of the players (n=25) except two injured players. Lactate and heart rate data from the tests at the end of first part of the season on December were used to design individual training programmes for each player.

Table 1. Elite soccer players training program for two weeks mid-break transition period.

RESULTS Findings indicated that there were no significant differences between athletes' aerobic capacity before and after mid-break transition period.

CONCLUSION Low intensity aerobic training during mid-break transition period attempted to help elite soccer play-ers maintain a degree of aerobic fitness during this period, and whilst the lack of any significant difference between end of the first part of season and beginning of second part of season preparation suggested that two weeks of low intensity aerobic training programme may have been effective.

KEY WORDS Low intensity aerobic training, mid-break transition period.


P-088 Intermittent exercise performance evaluations in soccer players using Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2

Fedon Marcello Iaia2,1, Thomas Rostgaard1, Peter Krustrup1 and Jens Bangsbo1
1University of Copenhagen, Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Denmark
2State University of Milan Faculty of Exercise Sciences, Italy

OBJECTIVE Due to its specificity and practicality, the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test 2 (YYIR2) has been exten-sively used in soccer to assess players' abilities to perform repeated high-intensity exercise. Studies have shown its sensitivity in discriminating players' performances at various competitive levels, between different playing positions, and after periods of different types of training. The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in physical condition that may occur during a season in soccer players and to evaluate the effectiveness of the YYIR2 in order to detect such changes.

METHODS Twelve elite male soccer players belonging to a team taking part in the league's top division performed the YYIR2 at the beginning of the pre-season preparation and after ten days of preparation, as well as at the Start of the competitive season and during Mid season. Performance data was subsequently analyzed for mean and individual sea-sonal variations.

RESULTS The YYIR2 performances were 116039 and 106852m at Start and Mid season, which were 23.4 and 13.6% better respectively (p<0.05) than After 10 days of preparation (94040m). In Mid season the YYIR2 perform-ance tended to be lower (-7.9%) compared to Start. However, large individual variations were observed (CV=8.2%) since two players improved whereas six had a drop in performance (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Individual and mean seasonal changes in the Yo-Yo IR2 test performance expressed in me-tres for 12 elite male soccer players. Values are means SEM. : Significantly different from Start pre-season preparation (p<0.05); #: Significantly different from After 10 days of preparation (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION Players' abilities to perform repeated high-intensity exercise varied considerably in pre-season, whereas levels were on average lower during the season. However it is not possible to generalize since there are major individual variations. These results also illustrate that the Yo-Yo IR2 test is sensitive enough to detect changes in play-ers' performance levels during the season

KEY WORDS Testing, intermittent exercise, physical condition, seasonal changes.


P-089 Effects of age and playing position on Iranian elite soccer players' competitive motivation

Shojaei Masoumeh
Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran

OBJECTIVE It is generally accepted that a competitive mindset is advantageous for success in sports (Heyman, 1992; Raglin, et al., 1990; Stewart & Meyers, 2004). Motivation is one of the most important psychological traits that have considerable implications on sport programs for which appropriate selection of athletes or motivational attributes are deemed essential for optimal performance. Too often, even the most experienced football coaches ignore the benefits of exploring the personality or psychological state of their athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age and the position played on the Iranian elite male soccer players' competitive motivation.

METHODS 60 soccer players of senior, youth U 19 and U 23 national teams who were selected purposively completed the sports attitude inventory (Willis, 1982). The data were grouped by age and primary position played and analyzed by MANOVA.

RESULTS The statistical analysis indicated a significant effect by age (p<0.05), but not by playing position (p>0.05). According to the results of post hoc tests, players of senior national team were more motivated to avoid failure than youth U 19 national team players (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION The results were consistent with Stewart & Meyers3. The fact that older players of senior national team scored higher on the motivation to avoid failure subscale than younger players indicated that those players may have had a tendency to be more sensitive to what adults (their coaches) thought than the younger players.

REFERENCES
Heyman (1992) Journal of Sport Psychology 4, 295-300.
Raglin et al. (1990) Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22, 849-853.
Stewart et al. (2004) Physical Educator 61, 213-219.
Willis (1982) Journal of Sport Psychology 4, 338-353.

KEY WORDS Competitive motivation, elite, player position.


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