JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE & MEDICINE
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© Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2007) Suppl. 10 , 199 - 209
37. COMPUTER SCIENCE AND MATCH ANALYSIS
P-127 Analysis of actions ended with shots at goal in Women's European Football Championships
Bergier 1 , Andrzej Soroka 2 and Tomasz Buraczewski 1
OBJECTIVE Female football is quite a young sport; hence it still requires understanding and constant observations. Important contests, among which the European Championships undoubtedly hold a crucial place, give an opportunity to notice changes and tendencies initiated by teams representing the highest level in this field. Actions of players, ending with shots at the goal, are of particular importance. The aim of this study was to analyse in detail offensive actions from their beginning stage till the final one - a shot at the goal. Detailed objectives deal with a structure of quick attacks and positional attacks and topography of characteristic activities with a ball.
METHODS The research material consists of observations of 15 games played during Women's European Football Championships held in England in 2005. 353 offensive actions were analysed during which 50 goals were scored. The course of offensive actions ended with a goal was coded from a video record with the help of author's observation sheet.
RESULTS Due to multidirectional analysis of offensive actions ending with a goal, it was demonstrated that the place of their beginning stages is usually within an area of attack of a football field (41,6%) and a central area (41,2%). Most of the actions were short, after a quick, lasting up to 5 seconds (56,9%), attack after individual attack (30,3%) and con-ducted by two players (18,4%).
DISCUSSION The small amount of the treatises over the characteristics of the game of women proved the necessity of further research, because the game of women and men are different. Recognition of women's activities with and with-out the ball would make the programming of women's training process more effective.
Football, women European football championships, match analysis.
P-128 Ulti-camera wide-angle video recording and analysis
OBJECTIVE Automatic analysis of soccer videos for various purposes requires tracking of the position of the players and the ball on the field. Tracking across changing scenes (cameras), poses some challenges since there are discontinui-ties in the player and ball trajectories across different camera views. We proposed construction of a mosaic view of the field on PC by patching views from different cameras. In this study a multi-camera video recording and display system was developed to view the entire field of a soccer match, and propose new game analysis procedures. A camera acquisi-tion and display system was designed to simulate the actual viewing experience in a stadium.
METHODS The capture system involves N-cameras and twin SVGA or a HD display with a PC. Each camera view was compressed individually on-board the camera, and then sent to a PC, which drives a twin SVGA or HD display.
RESULTS Initial results of soccer analysis are successful.
DISCUSSION The multi-camera video recording and display system developed in this study can be applied to the video recording of the soccer matches for better analyses.
Wide angle complete field video recording, automatic soccer game analysis.
P-129 A critical survey of football rating systems
Pollard 1 and Raymond Stefani 2
OBJECTIVE Rankings have now become an important part of many sports. Three football codes currently issue regu-lar rankings, which are posted to the appropriate websites and published in the media. These are international soccer, U.S. college football and international rugby union. Both the FIFA world soccer rankings and the BCS system used in college football have made significant changes following heavy criticism. The rationale behind these systems needs to be understood. In this study two main objective rating procedures were defined and explored, accumulative rating pro-cedures and adjustive rating procedures. After tracing the history of sports rating systems, a detailed description of rating procedures that have been used for football codes was made with the aim of critically assessing their validity.
METHODS Details of the rating systems to be analyzed are available from the websites of the governing bodies con-cerned. These are FIFA, the International Rugby Board (IRB) and the BCS. An alternative to the FIFA system for soc-cer is also considered, the Elo ratings. The main features of these systems are described and discussed in the context of the framework introduced by Stefani (1997; 1999).
RESULTS FIFA uses an accumulative system which takes into account strength of opponents and game importance but ignores home advantage. The BCS uses both subjective rankings and adjustive computer ratings, combined in a way which often changes from year to year. The IRB rugby and the Elo soccer ratings are both adjustive and take into ac-count strength of opponents, game importance and margin of victory.
DISCUSSION FIFA's new system is an improvement, but raises several questions, especially by not incorporating home advantage and by treating all losses as equal regardless of the opponents. The way in which the BCS system com-bines its components lacks logical rationale. In contrast, the IRB rugby and Elo soccer ratings have theoretical justifica-tion, include all relevant factors and should produce fair rankings.
Rankings, ratings, football, FIFA world rankings, BCS.
P-130 Has soccer changed in the last three world championships?
Castellano Paulis 1, Abigail Perea 1 , Angel Blanco Villaseñor 2
OBJECTIVE A common characteristic in the Observational Methodology is that we can only observe the behaviour partly. That is the reason why we need to know if the observed variance is related with the individuals, the measuring tools, the place or other facets. This study focused on the Football World Championship facet. The study investigated if there was a significant difference in the way soccer was played along the last three World Cups.
METHODS 56 professional matches were registered with the taxonomic tool SOCCAF, 24 of them were played in France '98, 20 in Korea - Japan '02 and 12 in Germany '06. In total, more than 150.000 multievent sequences were registered. An analysis of 4 facets was performed; World Championship (3 levels), result (7 levels), area (5 levels) and categories (48 levels). A variance components analysis was done.
RESULTS The result of the analysis was demonstrated in Table 1. The variance assumed by the World Championship facet is 1%, this is, by means of the chosen facets, the teams have played almost the same way.
Using the variance and Generalizability studies, we can obtain more information
than just a description of 'here' and 'now'. Would we obtain the same
results if we had registered 20 more matches? And using a different category
system? What would happen if we divide the field in more areas? Variance
analysis models give us informa-tion about the variance of each chosen
P-131 Movement analysis of elite junior Australian Rules Football: Comparison to elite senior results
P. Veale , Alan J. Pearce and John S. Carlson
OBJECTIVE To date, no published research on the movement activities and demands exists in elite junior Australian Rules football (ARF) with junior ARF coaches relying on senior research data to prepare their developing players. Col-lection of movement activity data in elite junior ARF players and compared our results to previous research in elite senior ARF players (Dawson et al., 2004).
METHODS Thirty athletes (17.07±0.89 years) participated in the study. All on-field positions were tracked over seven home games during the 2006 Victorian U18 ARF season. Post match analyses involved reviewing each tape, calculating number of efforts, duration of efforts, and distance covered for each position. The data from the positions was then compared to elite senior data by Dawson et al. (2004).
Across all playing position categories, elite senior athletes completed
a greater number of efforts over the course of an entire game (ranging
from 226-387) and subsequently a greater estimated total distance covered
compared to the elite junior athletes. Similarly, elite junior players
recorded less game time (2-13mins) than their senior elite equivalent
DISCUSSION Although further research is required at both junior and senior levels to further understand game de-mands and optimize training regimes, the results from this Australian first study will assist junior elite ARF coaches to plan specific training programs for their junior players whilst developing them in preparation for elite senior competi-tion.
Movement analysis, comparison.
P-132 Kinematical analysis of Brazilian professional soccer players using an automatic tracking
Martin , Ricardo Barros, Milton Misuta, Rafael Menezes, Pascual Figueroa
and Sergio Cunha
OBJECTIVE Kinematical analysis of soccer players in play can provide useful information about their performance and it can be used for planning better subsequent training periods or evaluating the player performance during competi-tions. In previous studies, a method for automatic tracking of soccer players was developed (Figueroa et al., 2006). The aim of the present study was to do a kinematical analysis of Brazilian professional soccer players measured with an automatic tracking system.
METHODS Four regular Brazilian First Division Championship matches between different teams were filmed using four digital cameras. A novel computer vision system (DVideo) was used as a solution for tracking simultaneously all players during entire games. Evaluations of uncertainties, data filtering and data analysis were addressed. The trajecto-ries of 112 different players were tracked and analyzed.
RESULTS The results of controlled tests showed that uncertainties to determine positions in the field were around 0.3 meter. The mean distances covered and the distribution of velocities were analyzed and compared to data in the litera-ture. The trajectories of players were presented in various ways and modelled as a function of time.
DISCUSSION The kinematical analysis showed the reduction of performance as a function of time. The distances covered by Brazilian soccer players were not different than that reported in the literature. The novel method used has proved to be reliable and less labor-intensive than previously reported methods and should constitute an important tool for supplying data about the performance of players.
Soccer; tracking; distance covered; biomechanics
P-133 Offensive and defensive characteristics of 18th FIFA World Cup
Xu , Jianhua Shen and Xinhua Zhou
OBJECTIVE The world cup games of level is the top-flight in the world. The character of the offence and defence reflect the development of football. All teams in the 18th FIFA world cup attached importance to the defence and car-ried out the golden rule of offence based on good defence. The characteristics of balance were represented fully by the goals in the modern football games. This research aimed to reflect the basic characteristics of the offence and defence in the 18th FIFA world cup, and to put forward some useful references to improve the level of Chinese football.
METHODS The materials were the video tapes of the 16 games of the top 16 teams engaged in the semi-quarter- final of the 18th FIFA world cup. The method included the literature method, observation method, statistics method etc.
RESULTS There were differences in every field's offence of goals, but the offensive effect was nearly same. All teams attached importance to the defence and carried out the golden rule: The interception was main way to get the ball con-trolling in every zone defence, The characteristics of balance was represented fully by the goals in the modern football games.
DISCUSSION Results demonstrated that the offence comparatively less but most threatening. According to vertical analysis, the offence points were widely scattered in different zones as well as the characteristics of flexible point of-fence. It is generally accepted that the guideline for football match is the offence based on a good defence. Based on analysis, the changes that goals rule in average each match are 2-3 are objective.
18th world cup, football, offence, defence, analysis
Home advantage in Turkish professional soccer
OBJECTIVE Home advantage is an important factor in determining the results of soccer games although its precise causes are not clear (Pollard, 2006a). In national leagues worldwide an average of 61% of points are won by the home team, although marked regional variations exist (Pollard, 2006b). Building on previous work by Seckin (2006), a de-tailed analysis of home advantage in Turkish soccer is made. The first part of the study assessed the magnitude of home advantage in different situations in the Turkish Super League, and in League A, compared with other countries. The second part made use of match performance data to quantify and explain differences in performance among home and away teams. For both parts a comparison is made with similar studies from the Premier League in England.
METHODS Results of all games played in the Turkish Super League for the 12 seasons since 1994-95 are used to-gether with the last 4 seasons of League A. Comparisons in home advantage are made over time, between the leagues and as a function of distance travelled. Match performance data is used for the 2005-06 season from which home and away teams are compared in relation to many performance variables.
RESULTS Overall home advantage in the Super League was 62%, similar in League A and declining over time. It was lower for games played between the Istanbul teams, but much higher for games involving Vanspor (76%). Home teams took 26% more shots than away teams, and made 11% more successful passes in the scoring zone (p<.01), but there was no significant difference in tackles, fouls and yellow cards.
DISCUSSION Home advantage in Turkey is similar to the major leagues in Europe. A high figure for the team from Van is consistent with a remote location, at altitude with harsh weather. Differences for attacking performance variables are similar to those in England. However the lack of differences in the aggressive variables, fouls and cards, contrasts with England where they are higher for the away team.
Home advantage, Turkish Super League, match performance.
P-135 Analysis of offensive playing patterns in soccer
Martinez 1 and Joaquin Lago-Ballesteros 2
OBJECTIVE Competition in soccer is the most important source of data to extract tactical conclusions. Studying the goals allows defining the offensive and defensive tactics in the soccer teams. Different offensive patterns can be used, although their criteria of successes are different. Coaches must know more effective tactics to construct training pro-grams. Describe patterns in offensive play. Extract conclusions to tactical training programs
METHODS This was an indirect observational study about goals scored during 220 matches in the Spanish leagues of First and Second division in 04/05 season. Passing sequence was defined in terms of sequence length. Analysis data includes descriptive and logistic regression.
Goal-scoring: 2.44 goals per match, 33.4% in actions to stopped ball.
In dynamic play, direct play (40.2 % goals per match) is more effective
than possession play (32.6%) or contra attack (27.1%)
DISCUSSION In Spanish modern soccer, effective static play (stopped ball actions) and smaller or rapid passing se-quences define successful teams. In longer possession attack, defence had more opportunity to minimize surprise and dislocation. Coaches must use this information to improve tactical training.
Performance analysis, offensive playing patterns, modelization of training.
P-136 Techno-tactics and running distance analysis by camera
Fernandes , Pedro Caixinha and Pedro Malta
The purpose of the present research was to identify the energetic strategy
and the relation with the techno-tactic options used by soccer players
during a game. The objective was to find a relation between the energy-functional
capacity (distance traversed, speed of displacement) and the actions techno-tactics
carried out by the players during the game. The objective was to find
a relation between the energy-functional capacity (distance traversed,
speed of displacement) and the actions techno-tactics carried out by the
players during the game. For collecting the techno-tactics information
we elaborate a table contain all the important actions propose by the
coach before the game.
RESULTS The middle-fielder was the player that traversed bigger distance (14198,87m) with an average speed of 2,46 m/s, followed by defender (12958,53) with a speed of 2,91 m/s, and finally the forward (11224,77) with a speed of 2,65 m/s. Only the middle-fielder presented significant differences in the reduction of speed of the 1st half for the 2nd half.
DISCUSSION The players did not present significant differences in the reduction of the adequate actions to the proc-esses (offensive and defensive), of the 1st for the 2nd half. The defenders carried out more adequate defensive actions than offensive ones, in the middle-field had been registered approached values, as well as forwards.
CONCLUSION In conclusion, recommendations for female soccer players are to encourage consumption of carbohy-drate-electrolyte beverages to enhance carbohydrate intake and increase fluid intake, and ensure sufficient iron rich foods are included in the diet to meet the DRI.
Soccer, time motion analysis, running velocities.
P-137 Analysis of successful scoring situations in football matches
Bergier and Tomasz Buraczewski
In the contemporary world, objective research and analysis are the basis
of effective work and success. Getting familiar with match analysis in
the football world constitutes a supportive insight into the training
process. Thus it is of great importance to systematically and carefully
gather data on players' performance on the field. This paper investigated
the characteristics of successful scoring situations in the most prestigious
matches. The questions raised were as follows:
METHODS The analysed material consisted of the recording goals in 76 most prestigious football matches: 27 in World Cup 2002, 16 in Euro 2004, 17 in Champions League 2004/05 and 16 in World Cup 2006. The analysis of the video recordings of football matches was conducted with filling in observations sheets, on which the information con-cerning the pre-scoring situation was recorded.
RESULTS The time of the scoring situation did not exceed 15 seconds (76%) and most often two (16,7%), three (25%) or four players (22,9%) were involved. Most goals were scored from between the goal area and the penalty line (62,4%). The most effective were both goals scored after the shot without receiving the ball (38.8 %) and goals scored with using the technique of kicking the ball with the front part of the instep and with the inside of the foot (30.3 %-30.8 %).
DISCUSSION The research results indicated that actions ended with a goal lasted up to 15 seconds and in the most actions 2-4 players were involved playing small number of passes. The goals were scored mainly from the penalty area and there were the most effective after the shot without receiving the ball and with using the technique of kicking the ball with the front part of the instep and with the inside of the foot.
Football, championships, match analysis, scoring situations, goals.
P-138 Performance indicators distinguishing matches between regions in World Cup
Choi , Mike Hughes and Peter O'Donoghue
OBJECTIVE Performance indicators (PI's) (Hughes and Bartlett, 2002) have been used to analyse performances ra-tionally and efficiently. The optimal number of performance indicators to be used can be determined through statistical techniques (Choi et al., 2006). The aim of this study was to identify an optimal set of performance indicators for World Cup 2002 and 2006 and compare matches of regions in terms of predetermined performance indicators.
METHODS Data of all matches (n=128) from the FIFA web site was entered into MS Excel. And the absolute differ-ence of two teams' performance was used to determine the performances. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare matches of teams from regions and ranking levels.
RESULTS Between the 2002 and 2006 data, 12 indicators (p<0.05) in the matches of Africa vs Europe and Europe vs South America regions were significantly distinguished. And 5 indicators (p<0.05) in Asia vs Europe, 6 indicators (p<0.05) in Europe vs Europe were distinguished the 2002 and 2006 world cup. Additionally, free kicks to goals and direct free kicks distinguished the all regions.
DISCUSSION The PIs distinguishes regions of teams used outcome indicators related to scoring opportunities. No PIs related to tactical style or patterns of play had a significant effect.
Construct validity, performance indicators.
P-139 Regional comparisons of team performances in World Cup 2002 and 2006
Choi , Mike Hughes and Peter O'Donoghue
OBJECTIVE Performance indicators (PI) are used to represent team performances (Hughes et al., 2002). In the 1990 World Cup, regional origin was found to influence the playing style of teams (Yamanaka et al, 1993). The purpose of the current study was to compare teams of different regions using the 256 performances within the 128 matches of the 2002 and 2006 World Cups.
METHODS Data were collected from different tournament web sites and regions compared in terms of 48 significant PIs using Kruskal Wallis H tests with post-hoc Mann-Whitney U tests.
RESULTS There are significantly differences found in ranks (23.6± 16.6, p<0.05), goals (1.1±0.6, p<0.05), goals con-ceded (1.3±0.8, p<0.05), shots on goal (5.2±1.5, p<0.05), crosses (20.5±5, p<0.05), corner kicks (5.1±1.7, p<0.05) and bookings (2.7±1, p<0.05).
DISCUSSION This study has showed that, rather than disappearing, regional differences in patterns of play have emerged between 2002 and 2006. The findings presented there are significant differences between the regions, but no same results were found in each comparison of regional differences.
Performance indicators, regional factors, construct validity.
P-140 Relevance of penalty kick methods and scoring ratio in World Cup 2006
Ping Chang 1 , Hsiang Hsing Liu 2, Tsung Hui Cheng 3 and Ding Syong Chen
OBJECTIVE Four different types of penalty kicks were derived according to parts of the foot used: instep kick; out-side of instep kick; inside of instep kick; and inside of foot kick. Furthermore, the trajectories of the ball were grouped into 5 groups: power shots, swerve balls, push passes, chips, and trick shots. Fake moves done by the kicker to trick the keeper were also included in the analysis. The objective of this research is to reinforce existing literatures on the strat-egy of penalty kicks. By using the data of WC2006, it was expected to construct an analytic model that identifies the relevance between penalty kicking methods and their scoring ratio, thus, providing coaches and players more scientific assistance on penalty kick strategies.
METHODS Using a digital recorder, the videos of all 50 penalty kicks in the 64 matches of the FIFA World Cup 2006 were recorded and analyzed. The chi-square (?2) test was used to analyze those penalty kicks.
RESULTS 34 penalty kicks went in and the other 16 were either saved or missed. The numbers of penalty kicks were categorized according to the kicking methods used into: instep kick, 10; outside of instep kick, 2; inside of instep kick, 34; and inside of foot kick, 4.
1. Results of the analyzed penalty kicks.
World Cup, penalty kick, instep kick, outside of instep kick, inside of
instep kick, inside of foot kick.
P-141 Comparison of corner kicks of host and visitor teams in 2005-2006 Super League and 3rd League matches in Turkey
OBJECTIVE Dead Balls such as corner kicks are more important in today's soccer games than ever before as they have started to give more importance to tactical strategies in the corner kicks to score goals. Therefore, it is the effec-tiveness of corner kicks that determines the results of the soccer matches that needs to be better analyzed. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of the corner kicks used by the host and visitor teams in the matches of Denizlispor and Denizli Belediye Spor soccer teams in Denizli, Turkey.
METHODS The corner kicks within the penalty area were evaluated in 32 matches in Denizli, specifically Denizlispor and Denizli Bld.Spor. The penalty area was divided into six areas and the player by sending the ball to their teams' players in the corner kicks is the foundation stone of the effective corner kicks.
RESULTS Per match, to send within the penalty area and effective corner kick means by used the host teams were found more values according to visitor teams. The host teams have scored 5 out of 49 goals from the corner kicks. But, visitor teams scored 3 out of 31 goals. Among the six areas, 2nd area was where most of the corner kicks of the host and visitor teams were received.
The percent of the effective rates of the corner kicks were % 36,93
for host teams and % 32,49 for visi-tor teams. In terms of the effectiveness
rates the Super League teams gained more points than the 3rd League teams.
These results could be explained by the soccer player's quality.
Soccer, corner kick, effectiveness.
P-142 Heart rate data files compiling for coaching control and research: HRDC Osasuna 1.0
1 , Fernando J. Sanchez 2 and Asier Los Arcos 3
OBJECTIVE Heart rate (HR) monitoring during practice and competition is the only way that soccer coaches can objectively assess the organic response of the players without the assistance of medical staff. In addition, it can be a profitable way of getting continuous information about players and practice drills in terms of money and time, even though Polar Precision Performance SW© results of limited help for bigger sets of data or for the provision of record sets for advanced statistical analysis. Moreover, in soccer coaching HR data must be contextualized within the specific drill and moment they are produced. The purpose of this piece of work was to develop HRDC Osasuna 1.0, a software application that allows to access HR data in a totally free way.
METHODS HRDC Osasuna 1.0 has been written using Visual Basic .net Express edition©.
RESULTS HRDC Osasuna 1.0 let coaches and researchers to create as many record sets as they needed. This software put together three types of information: HR data, players' profiles and coaching diaries. Besides, several filters could be applied according to the needs of the staff (recording interval and time limits). Output could be a text file or other for-mats through ODBC protocol.
DISCUSSION This application can be very useful for coaches and researchers if they need to deal with more than a few HRM files or want to know if HR response is linked to the play action in any way.
Heart rate, soccer.
P-143 Activity patterns in professional futsal players using global position tracking system
Barbero Álvarez 1 and Carlo Castagna 2
OBJECTIVE Futsal is played at professional, amateur and recreational levels all over the world. However despite its current and growing popularity only limited studies have addressed the physical demands of this indoor game. Further-more the available literature only addressed amateur or recreational futsal cohorts (Castagna et al., 2006; Barbero et al., 2006). The aim of this study was to investigate game activity-pattern of professional Futsal players (age 22.5±1.7 years, body mass 75.3±7.3 kg, height 177.8±8.7 cm, and VO2max 64.6± 5.23 ml kg-1 min-1) in order to gain information for the development of training strategies.
METHODS Eight professional players (Generala IBI, Division de Plata) volunteered to this study. Players trained 10 times a week with a competition played at the weekend. Game activity was tracked and recorded during highly competi-tive outdoor training-games (4x10min) using GPS technology (SPI 10, GPSports, Canberra, Australia) in order to quan-tify physical demands.
RESULTS During the game players covered 118±7.5 m min-1 of which 22.2±5.4 % (10±3% of game time) were per-formed at high intensity (>15 km h-1, HI). Players performed 3.4±1.1 HI bouts min-1 (i.e. every 17.6 s). During the last period of the game HI distance (-28.4% and -26.9%) and HI (-27.8% and -37.8%) bouts significantly (p<0.01) de-creased compared to first and second periods, respectively.
DISCUSSION These results showed that Futsal played at professional level is a high-intensity exercise that induces activity decrements across the game possibly due to fatigue. Given the documented decrement in sprint attempts the ability to repeat sprints may be regarded as a Futsal-specific ability.
Physical demands, training, GPS tracking system, intermittent exercise.
P-144 Home advantage in Asian football leagues
Rahnama , Effat Bambaeichi and Hamid Reza Sadeghiour
OBJECTIVE Existence of home advantage has been established for all major professional team sports in the world. The role of home advantage in determining the result of a football match was found to be greatest in soccer (Pollard, 2006). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of home advantages in Asian Football Leagues.
METHODS The number of wining, losing and scores (at home and away games) of 17 teams from the Asian countries including two zones of West and South West and East and South East of Asia, were analyzed.
RESULTS The results showed that the home advantage on East and South East of Asia was 3.1 percent more than West and South West (52/4‰ vs 49.3‰). In West and South west Asian Countries, this phenomenon had the highest effect on Saudi Arabia (60.6‰) and lowest on Bahrain (50.3‰). In East and South East countries the highest effect was observed in Indonesia (65.3‰) and lowest effect in Hon Kong (55%).
DISCUSSION It can be concluded that home advantage has been effective in Asian Football Leagues.
Football, away games, winning, losing.
P-145 Heart-rate and activity-speed of professional soccer players in match
Barbero Álvarez 1 and Carlo Castagna 2
OBJECTIVE Although there are limitations in using heart rates (HR) to assess intense intermittent activity HR moni-toring is suggested to be a valid measure to determine ball-drills intensity or competition demands.However no informa-tion are available about the relationship between HR and match-activty speed in soccer. The aim of this study was to examine whether HR reflected match-activity speed in professional soccer players.
METHODS Match HR responses (short range telemetry) were coupled with time-motion analysis using GPS technol-ogy (SPI Elite, GPSports, Canberra, Australia) in 4 professional players during friendly matches (45 min). Comparisons were made dividing game duration into 3 minutes periods (n=15).
RESULTS Average match-speed (MS) and HR were 7±0.5 km h-1 and 165±7.1 b min-1 respectively. No significant correlations were found between HR and MS (r=0.43 p=0.11) or distance covered (r=0.46 p=0.10). Likewise, no sig-nificant correlations were found between HR and distance covered at high intensity (r=0.25 p=0.37).
DISCUSSION These results show that HR cannot be considered as a reflection of match-intensity in soccer. Therefore HR and time-motion analyses should be coupled together in order to assess match or ball-drill demands in soccer.
KEY WORDS Physical demands, competition, GPS Tracking System, intermittent exercise