PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND MOOD STATES AFTER DAILY REPEATED PROLONGED
dissertation presented on the 8th of May 2004 at the the Faculty
of Medicine of the University of Kuopio, Finland, by permission
of LIKES - Research Reports on Sport and Health, Finland. LIKES
- Research Reports on Sport and Health 160.
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kuopio, Kuopio
LIKES-Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland
© Journal of Sports Science
and Medicine (2004) 3, Suppl.6, 1 - 43
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review is based on the following orginal publications, which will be referred
to in the text as Studies 1-6:
I., Mäntysaari, M., Huttunen, P., Komulainen, J. and Vihko, V. (1997)
The effects of a 4-day march on the lower extremities and hormonal balance.
Military Medicine 162, 118-122.
I., Vasankari, T., Mäntysaari, M. and Vihko, V. The effects of a 4-day
march on the gonadotrophins and mood states of military men. Military
Medicine 169 (in press).
I., Mäntysaari, M. and Vihko, V. (2001) Soldiers' physiological and psychological
loading during a 4-day march. Annales Medicinae MIlitaris Fenniae 76,
I., Vasankari, T., Mäntysaari, M. and Vihko, V (2002) Hormonal responses
to daily strenuous walking during 4 successive days. European Journal
of Applied Physiology 88, 122-127.
I. and Vihko, V. Physiological and psychological responses to 100 km cross-country
skiing during 2 days. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
I., Vasankari, T., Mäntysaari, M. and Vihko, V. Hormonal responses to
100 km cross-country skiing during 2 days. Journal of Sports Medicine
and Physical Fitness (in press).
purpose of this study was to describe the physiological responses
to daily repeated acute but non-competitive prolonged exercise during
a 4-day march and a 2-day cross-country ski event to the cardiorespiratory,
autonomic nervous, musculoskeletal and endocrine systems. Mood states
were also evaluated after these repeated exercises.
The data of these short-term follow-up (reversal) field trials was
collected from healthy, 23 to 48 year old Finnish male soldiers
in 1993 (n=6) and 1994 (n=15) during the "International Four-Day
Long-Distance March" in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and from
ten healthy, 22 to 48 year old Finnish male participants in 1995
during a 2-day Finlandia Ski Race in Lahti, Finland.
Acute cardiovascular responses were estimated by measuring the heart
rate during exercise. The responses of the autonomic nervous system
were estimated by measuring the heart rates during the orthostatic
test. The musculoskeletal responses were estimated by measuring
the perceived pains, flexibility, functional strength, use of elastic
energy and oedemic changes of the lower extremities. Hormonal responses
were estimated from the urinary excretion of catecholamines, and
the concentrations of serum cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing
(LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Mood states were assessed
with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire.
Daily walking time was 7-10 hours while the skiing time was 3 hours.
Average heart rate during walking was 59% and skiing 87% of maximum
heart rate. Morning heart rate in the supine position increased
progressively through the marching period but not through the skiing
experiment. After the first day, perceived pain increased significantly
and remained at a similarly increased level until the end of the
exercise period. Leg measurements showed no signs of oedema, decreases
in flexibility, or functional strength. Catecholamine excretion
rates during marches indicated cumulatively increased sympathoadrenal
stress. The acute increasing effect of a single walking session
on cortisol was seen only after the first day when there was a 60%
increase. Responses after skiing were greater (2.2- and 2.6-fold).
The acute reductions in testosterone concentrations were seen after
the first two marching sessions, when they were decreased by 18-22%.
LH concentration was decreased by 31-44% after the second and third
day. For FSH concentrations suppression was consistently seen after
the second march, but not after skiing. The total mood disturbance
score remained unchanged during the events. The Fatigue-Inertia
affective state was higher after exercise than before the events.
This study demonstrates that the pituitary-gonadal axis, excluding
the secretion of FSH and the adrenal cortex, adapted to four days
of repeated moderate 8 h walking, but not to two days of repeated
strenuous 3 h skiing. However, when using the sensitive IFMA, which
can detect low concentrations of gonadotropins, secretion of FSH
was seen to remain reduced and no adaptation was seen in walking.
This study indicated that daily repeated long lasting acute but
non-competitive walk and skiing of intensity at approximately 60-90%
of the maximum heart rate is well within the physiological capabilities
of individuals with good aerobic capacity.
WORDS: Hormones, functional capacity, lower extremities, muscle
soreness, mood state, adaptation, recovery, walking, skiing.