Table 3. Age-related changes in respiratory system.



Decrease in chest wall elasticity

Crapo, 1993

Increase in thoracic kyphosis

Crapo, 1993

Increase in diaphragmatic activity during breathing

Teramoto et al., 1995

Decrease in ciliary function

Tockmann, 1994

Attenuation of immune reactions

Abbas et al., 1995

Increase in resistance to airway passage

Dempsey and Seals, 1995

Decrease in lung elasticity

Reiser et al., 1987

Decrease in functional respiratory area

Thurlbeck, 1991

Decrease in vital capacity

Cotes, 1993

Worsening of gas exchange in the alveoli

Dempsey and Seals, 1995