Table 4. Variables measured in Studies 1-5.

Variables Study Reference
Balance tests
Functional balance

Performance time (s)
Performance time (s) + errorsErrors (number)


1-5
1-5
1-5
 Punakallio et al., 1997a
Dynamic stability
Performance time (s)
Distance traveled by COP (mm)

3, 5
3, 5
Metitur, 2001
Postural balance
Normal standing (EO, EC) 40 s
Mediolateral
velocity (mms-1)
Anteroposterior
velocity (mms-1)
Velocity moment (mm2s-1)

Tandem standing (EO) 20 s
Mediolateral
velocity (mms-1)
Anteroposterior velocity (mms-1)
Velocity moment (mm2s-1)

Normal standing (EO, EC) 30 s
Mean sway velocity (mms-1)
Mean sway amplitude (mm)
  

1 (EO), 2
1 (EO), 2
1 (EO), 2, 3 


1
1
1


4
4

Era et al., 1996; Metitur, 2001   




Era et al., 1996; Metitur, 2001   





Starck et al., 1993; Takala et al., 1997 
Perceived balance (1-5)
4
Lusa-Moser et al., (unpublished data), Punakallio et al., 1997a
Risk of slipping and falling
 
 
Sliding distance of the foot (cm)

Work ability
Work ability index (7-49)
Perceived physical work ability(1-5)
Work experience (years)



4
4
1-5
Grnqvist, 1995 Tuomi et al., 1991, 1998Tuomi et al., 1991, 1998 
Physical activity
Frequency (not at all-
3 times/week)
1-5
 Aromaa et al., 1989
Muscular capacities
 
 
Sit and reach (cm)
3
Pollock and Willmore, 1990
Squatting (repetitions/60s)
1, 3
Lusa, 1994
Squatting (repetitions/30s)
1
Aura, 1994
Sit-up (repetitions/60s)
3
Lusa, 1994
Trunk extension strength (N)
3
Viitasalo et al., 1977
Knee extension strength (N)
3
Viitasalo et al., 1985
Aerobic capacity
 
 
VO2max (mlmin-1kg-1 , lmin-1)
2
 
Anthropometrics
 
 
Body height (cm)
Body weight (kg)
Body mass index (kg
m-2)
1-5
1-5
1-5
 
Abbreviations: EO = eyes open, EC = eyes closed, VO2max = maximal oxygen consumption.