JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE & MEDICINE
PERFORMANCE AND KINEMATICS OF VARIOUS THROWING TECHNIQUES IN TEAM-HANDBALL
Herbert Wagner1,2, Jürgen Pfusterschmied1,2, Serge P. von Duvillard3 and Erich Müller1,2
1Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, and 2CD-Laboratory "Biomechanics in Skiing", University of Salzburg, Austria, 3Department of Kinesiology-Exercise Science and Biology, College of Idaho, USA
© Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2011) 10, 73 - 80
|In team-handball competition, the players utilize various throwing
techniques that differ in the lower body movements (with and without run-up
or jump). These different lower body movements influence changes in the
upper body movements and thus also affect the performance. A comprehensive
analysis of 3D-kinematics of team-handball throws that may explain these
differences in performance is lacking. Consequently, the purpose of this
study was (1) to compare performance (ball velocity and throwing accuracy)
between the jump throw, standing throw with and without run-up, and the
pivot throw; (2) to calculate the influence of kinematic parameters to ball
velocity; and (3) to determine if these four throwing techniques differ
significantly in kinematics. Three-dimensional kinematic data (angles, angular
velocities and their timing, ball velocity and velocity of the center of
mass) of 14 elite team-handball players were measured using an 8 camera
Vicon MX13 motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK), at 250 Hz. Significant
difference was found between the four throwing techniques for ball velocity
(p < 0. 001), maximal velocity of the center of mass in goal-directed
movement (p < 0.001), and 15 additional kinematic variables (p < 0.003).
Ball velocity was significant impacted by the run-up and the pelvis and
trunk movements. Depending on floor contact (standing vs. jump throws),
elite players in the study used two different strategies (lead leg braces
the body vs. opposed leg movements during flight) to accelerate the pelvis
and trunk to yield differences in ball velocity. However, these players
were able to utilize the throwing arm similarly in all four throwing techniques.
Key words: Ball games, biomechanics, ball velocity, throwing accuracy.
In team-handball, the offensive players attempt to throw a ball
on goal from a position without being tackled or obstructed by the opposing
defensive players. This is accomplished using tactical components of passing
the ball and utilizing different throwing techniques. In competition,
73-75% of all throws during the game constitute jump throws, followed
by the standing throw with run-up (14-18%), penalty throw (6-9%), diving
throw (2-4%) and direct free throw (0-1%) (Wagner et al., 2008).
Run-up is limited to the jump throw and standing throw with run-up. These
techniques are used to increase the horizontal velocity, making it difficult
for the defensive player to tackle and potentially enabling a higher ball
Based on previous studies in team-handball throwing (van den Tillaar and Ettema, 2004; 2007; Wagner and Müller, 2008; Wagner et al., 2010a; 2010b), we expected to find significant differences in throwing performance between the different throwing techniques that may be influenced by the velocity of the centre of mass in goal-directed movement, and lower and upper body kinematics.
analysis and angle calculations
calculations and phase classification
differences (p < 0.001) in performance were found between the four
throwing techniques for the ball velocity but not for the percentage of
missed throws and the mean radial error (Table
was not surprising that there were no significant differences in the throwing
accuracy since the participants of our study were elite team-handball
players with experience in training (10.8 ± 3.8 yrs) and competition.
Players were familiar with all utilized throwing techniques and they were
able to hit the target frequently and accurately. In agreement with recent
studies in team-handball throwing (Bayios and Boudolos, 1998;
Fradet et al., 2004;
Gorostiaga et al., 2005;
Sibila et al., 2003;
van den Tillaar and Ettema, 2004;
Wagner and Müller, 2008;
Wagner et al., 2010a;
the participants in our study achieved the greatest ball velocity in the
standing throw with run-up (defined as 100% ball velocity), followed by
the standing throw without run-up (93%), jump throw (92%) and pivot throw
(85%). Bartlett and Best, 1998,
Bartlett et al., 1996
and Morris et al., 2001
found that in javelin throwing the run-up velocity is an important contributor
to javelin velocity and that javelin throwers of different performance
level differ in run-up as well as javelin velocity. In javelin throwing,
release velocity can be considered as the sum of run-up velocity and velocity
generated by the thrower movements (Bartlett and Best, 1988).
In the present study we found a correlation between the velocity of the
center of mass in goal-directed movement and ball velocity, as well as
significant differences in the ball velocity and velocity of the center
of mass in goal-directed movement. Therefore, in team-handball, throwing
run-up velocity is an important contributor to the ball velocity.
|In the present study we analyzed performance and kinematics of
14 elite team-handball players in the standing throw with and without run-up,
jump, as well as pivot throw and found a significant influence of run-up
and pelvis as well as trunk movements to the ball velocity and significant
differences in the ball velocity, velocity of the center of mass in goal-directed
movement and 15 (maximal angles and angular velocities and their timing)
kinematic parameters. Depending on the floor contact (standing vs. jump
throws) the elite players of the study used two different strategies (lead
leg braces the body vs. opposed leg movements during flight) to accelerate
the pelvis and trunk that caused differences in ball velocity. However,
the elite team-handball players were able to utilize the throwing arm similarly
in all four throwing techniques.
For team-handball coaches and athletes, the results of this study suggest that for team-handball players to increase performance, the players had to learn two different strategies of pelvis and trunk acceleration depending on the floor contact (standing vs. jump throw) and adapt to differences in the lower body and trunk movements that enable similar movements of the throwing arm.
|The authors would like to thank Miriam Klous from the Department of Kinesiology, Motor Control Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University and Michael Buchecker from the Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg for assistance during data collection and reporting as well as Roger Bartlett, School of Physical Education, University of Otago for his helpfully comments.|
Employment: PostDoc at the Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, and CD-Laboratory "Biomechanics in Skiing", University of Salzburg, Au.
Research interests: Motor control and motor learning, movement variability, performance in sport games
Employment: Research assistant and PhD candidate at the Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, and CD-Laboratory "Biomechanics in Skiing", University of Salzburg, Austria.
Research interests: Applied Biomechanics, Rehabilitation, Training and Testing.
Serge P. von DUVILLARD
Employment: The College of Idaho.
Degree: Ph.D., FACSM, FECSS.
Research interests: Applied/Exercise Physiology, Testing and Monitoring of Elite Athletes, Biomarkers of Performance, Exercise Biochemistry, Cardiac Rehabilitation, etc.
Employment: Head of the Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, and CD-Laboratory "Biomechanics in Skiing", University of Salzburg, Austria.
Degree: PhD; Professor.
Research interests: Biomechanics; Training and Coaching; Motor Learning.