1. a) Functional magnetic resonance angiography (fMRA) with forced plantar flexion, showing bilateral arteriovenous collapse, most evident in the left lower extremity (red arrows). No anatomic abnormality of muscle
or ligament insertion. b) Surgical exposure
with posterior approach shows a hypertrophied
plantaris muscle (with red vessel loop) compressing
the vascular bundle (white arrows). c) Section of the
muscle and neurovascular release of adhesions (white arrows).