JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE & MEDICINE
LOCALISED MUSCLE TISSUE OXYGENATION DURING DYNAMIC EXERCISE WITH WHOLE BODY VIBRATION
Daniel Robbins1, Clare Elwell2, Alfonso Jimenez1 and Mark Goss-Sampson1
1Centre for Sports Science and Human Performance, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritim, Kent, UK
2Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, UK
© Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2012) 11, 346 - 351
|Despite increasing use of whole body vibration during exercise
an understanding of the exact role of vibration and the supporting physiological
mechanisms is still limited. An important aspect of exercise analysis is
the utilisation of oxygen, however, there have been limited studies considering
tissue oxygenation parameters, particularly during dynamic whole body vibration
(WBV) exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding
WBV during heel raise exercises and assessing changes in tissue oxygenation
parameters of the lateral gastrocnemius using Near Infra Red Spectroscopy
(NIRS). Twenty healthy subjects completed ten alternating sets of 15 heel
raises (vibration vs. no vibration). Synchronous oxygenation and motion
data were captured prior to exercise to determine baseline levels, for the
duration of the exercise and 20 sec post exercise for the recovery period.
Both vibration and no vibration conditions elicited a characteristic increase
in deoxyhaemoglobin and decreases in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin,
tissue oxygenation index and normalised tissue haemoglobin index which are
indicative of local tissue hypoxia. However, the addition of vibration elicited
significantly lower (p < 0. 001) depletions in oxyhaemoglobin, total
haemoglobin, normalised tissue haemoglobin index but no significant differences
in deoxyhaemoglobin. These findings suggest that addition of vibration to
exercise does not increase the cost of the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius
muscle, but does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters,
potentially resulting from increased blood flow to the calf or a vasospastic
response in the feet. However, further studies are needed to establish the
mechanisms underlying these findings.
Key words: Vibration, NIRS, oxygenation, gastrocnemius, Heel raise.
Recent years have seen an increasing popularity of whole body
vibration (WBV) as an exercise modality. As a consequence there is an
increased need for greater understanding of the effects of the addition
of vibration to exercise. The effects of WBV on the musculoskeletal system
have been the subject of much research in the last decade and have been
summarised in recent reviews (Cochrane, 2011;
Studies on the effects of vibration are essentially split into two categories,
those on occupational vibration and those on vibration as an exercise
modality. Typically occupational vibration is much higher frequency (>100
Hz) with exposure over longer durations e.g. hours each day (Griffin,
Vibration for exercise purposes is typically much shorter in duration
e.g. minutes on a few days per week, with much lower frequencies and amplitudes
(Dolny and Reyes, 2008).
To date there have been few studies investigating the effect of WBV on
tissue blood flow and oxygenation parameters. Nakamura et al. (1996)
was one of the first researchers to report that vibration exercise has
different blood flow responses to occupational vibration, in that blood
flow is increased to the digits of the hand. Laser Doppler studies have
shown that application of both local vibration (Maloney-Hinds et al.,
and WBV during isometric weight-bearing exercise (Lohman III et al. 2008)
significantly increased skin blood flow without subsequent vasoconstriction
during the recovery period. Kerschan-Schindl et al., 2001
reported a 100% increase of blood flow in the popliteal artery (from 6.5
to 13cm s-1), corresponding to Lythgo et al., 2009
who found an increased mean blood cell velocity in the femoral artery
following WBV. However, previously Hazell et al., 2008
reported no difference in the femoral artery from WBV in addition to Button
et al. (2007)
who found local vibration did not affect blood flow.
This study was carried out in accordance with University Ethics Guidelines and the ethical standards of the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants gave informed consent and received familiarisation of the procedure before data collection. Twenty physically active subjects (14 male, 6 female, age 29 ± 10. 4 years, height 1.75 ± 0.09m, weight 76.2 ± 17.15 kg, BMI 24.8 ± 4.3), with no recent history of lower limb musculoskeletal disorders were selected for inclusion in the study.
collection and processing
No significant differences were observed in range of motion (NVIB: 9.7 ± 0.4 cm, VIB: 9.2 ± 0.02 cm) or in the time taken to complete each set of exercises (NVIB 29.4 ± 0.2 sec, VIB: 29.3 ± 0.3 sec). Peak changes in NIRS muscle oxygenation parameters during heel raise exercises between NVIB and VIB conditions are shown in Table 1.
time series data representing increasing Δ HHb and decreasing Δ O2Hb
profiles are shown in Figures 1a
and 1b respectively which together
are characteristic of tissue hypoxia. NVIB and VIB conditions produced
very similar Δ HHb profiles with no significant difference in absolute
concentration changes. However, the Δ O2Hb profiles showed
a higher O2Hb depletion during exercise in the NVIB condition.
In the VIB condition O2Hb depletion was significantly reduced
relative to NVIB (p < 0.001).
investigating gender difference ANOVA only highlighted differences in
Δ HHb with females producing significantly less HHb during both NVIB and
VIB conditions compared to male participants (p < 0.05).
obtained indicate that there are significant differences in tissue oxygenation
resulting from the addition of whole body vibration to heel raise exercise.
Whilst NIRS does not precisely measure blood flow, changes in haemoglobin
levels point towards blood volume in the area assessed (Boushel et al.,
Bhambhani et al., 2000;
Mileva et al., 2006)
and changes can be an indication of oxygen delivery and utilisation in
non-occluded conditions (McNeil et al., 2006).
|The results obtained indicate that the addition of vibration to heel raise exercise does not increase the metabolic cost of completing the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius muscle. However, the addition of vibration during exercise does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters potentially indicating less reduction in tissue blood volume and/or increased blood flow, this pattern of responses is indicative of reducing exercise induced tissue hypoxia. Nonetheless, it is important not to over interpret these results. To date it has not been fully established if the observed changes are a direct result of increased blood flow to the leg, or a consequence of a vasospastic response in the feet creating a blood pooling effect in the legs. Further studies should be undertaken to investigate these potential explanations before conclusions are formed and exercise/rehabilitation recommendations being issued.|
|This project was partly funded by Power Plate International Ltd and produced within the Power Plate Research Institute at the University of Greenwich at Medway. The NIRS equipment was provided by the Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London|
Employment: PhD Candidate University of Greenwich
Research interests: Vibration exercise; Neuromusculoskeletal biomechanics; neuromuscular physiology; Rehabilitation.
Employment: Professor University of Greenwich
Research interests: Clinical and performance exercise physiology
Employment: Principle Lecturer University of Greenwich
Research interests: Sensorimotor control and biomechanics of human movement.
Employment: Professor of Medical Physics
Research interests: Near infrared spectroscopy instrumentation and application