REFERENCES

Andraws, R., Chawla P. and Brown D. (2005) Cardiovascular effects of ephedra alkaloids: A comprehensive review. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 47, 217-225.

Battig, K. (1993) Acute and chronic cardiovascular and behavioural effects of caffeine, aspirin and ephedrine International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders 117(Suppl 1), S61-64.

Bell, D.G., McLellan, T.M. and Sabiston, C.M. (2002) Effect of ingesting caffeine and ephedrine on 10-km run performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 34(2), 344-349.

Bent, S., Tiedt T.N., Odden, M.C. and Shlipak, M.G. (2003) The relative safety of ephedra compared with other herbal products. Annals of Internal Medicine 1138, 468-471.

Chen, C., Biller, J., Willing, S.J. and Lopez, A.M. (2004) Ischemic stroke after using over the counter products containing ephedra. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 217, 55-60.

Food and Drug Administration, H.H.S. (2004) Final rule declaring dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids adulterated because they present an unreasonable risk. Final rule. Federal Register 669(28), 6787-854.

Haller, C.A. and Benowitz N.L. (2000) Adverse cardiovascular and central nervous system events associated with dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids. New England Journal of Medicine 343, 1833-1838.

Jacobs, I., Pasternak, H. and Bell, D.G. (2003) Effects of ephedrine, caffeine, and their combination on muscular endurance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 335, 987-994.

Knight, J. (2004) Safety concerns prompt US ban on dietary supplement. Nature 427(6970), 90.

LaBotz, M. and Smith, B.W. (1999) Creatine supplement use in an NCAA Division I athletic program. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 9, 167-169.

Maglione, M., Miotto, K., Iguchi, M., Jungvig, L, Morton S.C. and Shekelle, P.G. (2005) Psychiatric effects of ephedra use: An analysis of food and drug administration reports of adverse events. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 189-191.

Massad, S.J., Shier, N.W., Koceja, D.M. and Ellis, N.T. (1995) High school athletes and nutritional supplements: a study of knowledge and use. International Journal of Sport Nutrition. 5, 232-245.

McGuine, T.A., Sullivan, J.C. and Bernhardt, D.T. (2001) Creatine supplementation in high school football players. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 11, 247-253.

Myers, J. B., Guskiewicz, K.M. and Riemann, B.L. (1999) Syncope and atypical chest pain in an intercollegiate wrestler: a case report. Journal of Athletic Training 334, 263-266.

NCAA News Staff (1999) Latest drug-testing results indicate concern for ephedrine use. NCAA News (serial online) 336(25), (two screens) available form URL: http://www.ncaa.org/wps/portal.

Perotta, D. (1996) Adverse events associated with ephedrine-containing products - Texas, December 1993-September 1995. JAMA 276, 1711-1712.

Pittler, M.H. and Ernst, E. (2004) Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 779, 529-536.

Pokorny, S.B., Jason, L.A., Schoeny, M.E. and Townsend, S.M. (2001) Do participation rates change when active consent procedures replace passive consent. Evaluation Review 225, 567-580.

Ray, T.R., Eck, J.C., Covington, L.A., Merphy R. B., Williams R. and Knutson J. (2001) Use of oral creatine as an ergogenic aid for increased sports performance: perceptions of adolescent athletes. Southern Medical Journal. 94, 608-612.

Santelli, J. S., Rosenfeld, W.D., DuRant, R.H., Dubler, N., Morreale, M., English, A. and Rogers, A.S. (1995) Guidelines for adolescent health research: a position paper of the society for adolescent medicine. Journal of Adolescent Health. 17(5), 270-276.

Shekelle, P.G. and Hardy, M.L. (2003) Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance: a meta-analysis. JAMA 289, 1537-1545.

Smith, J. and Dahm, D.L. (2000) Creatine use among a select population of high school athletes. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 75, 1257-1263.

Sobal, J. and Marquart, L.F. (1994) Vitamin/mineral supplement use among athletes: a review of the literature. International Journal of Sport Nutrition. 4, 320-334.

Theoharides, T.C. (1997) Sudden death of a healthy college student related to ephedrine toxicity from a ma huang-containing drink. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 117, 437-439.

Thiessen, M. (2005) Judge rules against FDA ban on ephedra. The Washington Post serial online, (two screens) available form URL: http://www.washingtonpost.com.