Figure 3. Hypothetical models of factors affecting post-exercise glycogen synthesis. Top: The type of nutrient administered affects total glycogen synthesis post-endurance exercise. Protein (PRO) promotes the least amount of glycogen synthesis where carbohydrate with protein (CHO + PRO) and carbohydrates alone stimulate maximal rates. Middle: The form/complexity of carbohydrate ingested after exercise determines the rate of glycogen synthesis, simple carbohydrates being the most effective. Bottom: A window of time exists following exercise that allows for maximal glycogen synthesis rates. Immediate nutrient administration is most effective, and as time elapses, the ability to replenish glycogen reduces.