Figure 4. These plots show the calculated effects of changes in player characteristics ( and in ) on: (top) the player’s optimum projection angle; and (bottom) the player’s maximum kick distance. Calculations are for a ball that just clears the crossbar. The dots mark the performance by the participant in this study ( = 27.9 m·s = 8 ´ 10 m·sper deg, optimum projection angle 32.3°, kick distance 40.8 m). The calculations indicate that the optimum projection angle for most skilled male rugby players should be around 30°