Figure 4. Upper body reaction time was measured as the number of successful “hits” in 60 seconds using the Dynavision D2 Visuomotor Training Device (D2; Dynavision International LLC, West Chester, OH). Assessment took place at baseline (prior to supplement ingestion) and at each hour following ingestion of the supplement for a total of 8 hours. Values were averaged for all 8 hours, hours 1-4, and hours 5-8. Values are means ± SD. PL=Placebo; TR-CAF= Time-release caffeine supplement; CAF=Regular caffeine supplement. * Significant difference compared to PL (p<0.05)