Figure 3. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and lactate concentrations during HIIT in the very low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (VLCHF) and habitual mixed Western diet (HD) groups. x – before exercise, xx- after warm-up. The differences over time in lactate between the VLCHF and HD groups expressed as ES ± 90% CI and their likelihood are shown (*possible, **likely, ***very likely, ****most likely. No asterisk means that 90% CL overlapped the thresholds for substantiveness - unclear difference) (see also Methods). Lactate values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation.