Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2020) 19, 237 - 244

Research article
Nordic Walking Increases Distal Radius Bone Mineral Content in Young Women
Takeru Kato1,4, , Toru Tomioka2, Takenori Yamashita3, Hidehiro Yamamoto1, Yasuhiro Sugajima1, Norikazu Ohnishi5
Author Information
1 Asahi University, Department of Health Science and Sports Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Mizuho, Gifu, Japan
2 Meijo University, Faculty of Foreign Studies, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
3 Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie, Japan
4 Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie, Japan
5 Mie Prefectural College of Nursing, Tsu, Mie, Japan

Takeru Kato
‚úČ Asahi University, Department of Health Science and Sports Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Mizuho, Gifu, Japan
Email: t-kato@alice.asahi-u.ac.jp
Publish Date
Received: 11-09-2019
Accepted: 15-01-2020
Published (online): 01-05-2020
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ABSTRACT

Unlike the lumbar spine and femur, the radius does not bear a gravitational mechanical compression load during daily activities. The distal radius is a common fracture site, but few studies have addressed the effects of exercise on fracture risk. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the pole push-off movement of Nordic walking (NW) on the bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of the distal radius and the muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) at the mid-humeral and mid-femoral levels. The participants were allocated to two groups: an NW group and a control group. The NW group walked at least 30 min with NW poles three times a week for six months. There were no significant changes in muscle CSA at the mid-humeral or mid-femoral levels between or within groups. There were also no significant changes in BMC or aBMD at 1/3 and 1/6 of the distance from the distal end of the radius in either group. However, the BMC and aBMD at 1/10 of the distance from the distal end of the radius were significantly increased by NW. The NW pole push-off movement provided effective loading to increase the osteogenic response in the ultra-distal radius. The ground reaction forces transmitted through the poles to the radius stimulated bone formation, particularly in the ultra-distal radius.

Key words: Non-weight-bearing bone, muscle cross-sectional area, ground reaction force, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, magnetic resonance imaging


           Key Points
  • Ultra-distal radius BMC and aBMD was increased without any significant increase in corresponding muscle CSA.
  • BMC and aBMD were enhanced in non-weight-bearing bone by using gravitational mechanical loading generated by relatively low stimuli.
  • NW pole push movement against the ground was effective for increasing the strength of non-weight-bearing bone.
 
 
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