JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE & MEDICINE
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VIth World Congress on Science and Football, Book of Abstracts, January 16-20, 2007, Antalya, Turkey
© Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2007) Suppl. 10 , 53 - 56
12. KINANTHROPOMETRY (1)
O-067 Changes in body compositions of elite level amateur and professional soccer players during the competitive season
Kutlu , Nuri Sofi and Taner Bozkus
Body composition is one of the success factors in soccer. Some studies
have evaluated the seasonal al-terations in body compositions of different
elite athletes. However, there is no adequate information regarding changes
in body composition during the competition period in elite level amateur
and professional soccer players. The purpose of this study was to analyze
and compare the seasonal alterations in body composition variables (%
Fat, FMM, BM, BMI and leg skin folds) among Turkish elite professional
and amateur soccer players in competitive season.
1. Body composition values of amateur and professional soccer players
and comparisons in competition period
CONCLUSION Body composition is likely to change during the course of the competitive season as a result of soccer activities in amateurs and professionals. However, seasonal variation in body composition was not as much as expected, particularly in amateurs. Fat values in this study was similar to some of those in literature but was lower when com-pared to the other studies.
Body composition, soccer, amateurs, professionals, competitive season.
O-068 Bone mineral density and body composition changes during a premier league association football season
Wallace , Dave Billows, Keith George and Tom Reilly
Body composition changes reflecting shifts in training throughout a season
have been intensely studied in football players, yet little has been reported
on the skeletal adaptations. It is possible that due to the bone remodel-ling
cycle, the intense pre-season training period may have a negative impact
on the players bone mineral density (BMD) during the early competitive
season, before the positive gains are accrued later in the season and
thereby in-creasing the risk of injury during this period.
RESULTS Negative BMD changes were observed only during the second more intense pre-season phase, BMD then increased during the competitive season. Percent body fat decreased during pre-season and during the competitive sea-son, increasing only during the off-season. Fat-free soft tissue mass increased during the pre-season and was maintained during the competitive season and the off-season.
Table 1. Seasonal changes in BMD and body composition.
CONCLUSION The decrease of BMD due to intense training pre-season marked the start of bone remodelling with demineralisation. The following increase in BMD above initial values reflected the bone formation phase. It is con-cluded that the changes in both skeletal and soft-tissue variables reflected the seasonal variations in training and compe-tition.
Bone mineral density, football, seasonal changes, body composition.
O-069 Variations of total body water changes in football players during running
Ahmedov , Hakan Atamtürk and Halil Tokmak
OBJECTIVE Running is an aspect of many sport activities, which can be adversely affected by water loss of the body. Previous studies indicated that loss of water by sweating varies greatly across players who train even with the same intensity and environmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to reveal if body composition of sportsmen with similar experiences may relate to sweat loss during running in comfortable environment.
METHODS In this study total body water changes of 11 randomly selected football players were analyzed during a 20m shuttle run test (SRT). We assessed sportsmen's height, weight, body water content, body fat content, core body temperature and amount of calories burned during shuttle run test. By the end of each test body weight, body water content and temperature measurements were repeated.
RESULTS Analysis of body composition parameters showed higher values for body surface area (BSA, 1.76m2 vs 1.94m2), body mass index (BMI) and body water content (BWC) before tests in those,who lost <100ml of BWC(gr.B) in comparison with those who lost equal to or more than 100ml of BWC (gr.A, p<0.05). There was no significant dif-ference for body fat percentage and core temperature parameters between groups.
CONCLUSION Higher BSA & BMI in gr.B in comparison with gr. A indicated on possibility of higher basal meta-bolic rate in former. Results allow to suggest, that higher basal metabolism in gr.B may require higher BWC to cool excessive sports-related heat. So, we can conclude that body composition is an important parameter in studies of body water changes in sportsmen.
Body water, football player.
O-070 Physical and physiological status of champion American football players in Turkey
, Gülbin Rudarli Nalcakan and M. Zeki Ozkol
OBJECTIVE Physical and physiological properties are not well documented particularly in some team sports, request-ing aerobic as well as anaerobic pathways, such as American Football (AF). Besides, AF is one of the developing sports in Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine physical and physiological parameters of champion American foot-ball players in Turkish league.
METHODS Totally 42 athletes' height, weight, body mass index (BMI: kg/m2), body fat ratio, flexibility (by sit and reach test), vertical jumping (by jump meter), left and right hand grip strength (by hand-grip dynamometer), leg and back strength (by back grip dynamometer) and anaerobic (by 10 yard and 40 yard running test) and aerobic (by Astrand Rhyming Test) performances were evaluated.
RESULTS Training year: 2.71±2, age:22.4(year), BMI: 29.15 kg/m2, waist/hip ratio: 0.86±0.06, body fat ratio: %18.81, flexibility: 8.06 cm, vertical jumping: 54.56cm, left and right hand grip strength: 47.72±10.27 and 44.92±9.48 N/kg, 10 yard and 40 yard running test: 1.71±0.13 and 5.02±0.77sec and aerobic power:38.01±8.22ml/kg/dk. No differ-ences were observed between the offence and defence team in all parameters
CONCLUSION In conclusion, the specialized AF training allowed the participants to improve more of their fitness capacities compared with foreign players, and it is suggested that evaluations of fitness development should be continue systematically in order to gain success and to lower the injury risk.
Aerobic, anaerobic, strength, body fat ratio, BMI, male, American footballer.
O-071 Cross-validation of non-invasive lactate threshold by bioelectrical impedance in football players
Luiz De Alvarenga and Márcio Nogueira De Souza
The most accurate method of determining lactate threshold (LT) is the
direct measurement of blood lactate concentration (BLC). A noninvasive
method has been proposed to estimate LT, as critical power and heart rate
deflection. A simple method for predicting the LT using bioelectrical
impedance spectroscopy (BIS) during incremental test on a cycle ergometre
was proposed by Alvarenga and Souza (2005). The aim of the present study
was to estimate in cross-validation group (CVG) of football players the
intensity of the LT from BIS variation (at rest and end of exercise) and
to compare with LT using the BLC.
RESULTS The mean of the LT using the invasive method was 94.27 ± 11.90 W and the LT using BIS was 95.46 ± 12.09 W. The comparison of the two methods showed r = 0.987 and SEE = 2.16 W. The LT intensity expressed in watts was not significantly different (p>0.05) across protocols.
DISCUSSION Recently (Stahn et al., 2006) used a non-exercise model based on bio impedance analyses for prediction of maximal oxygen. In this study, a progressive exercise model based in BIS was used for estimation LT and obtained high correlation. It was concluded that the proposed non-invasive technique could potentially be applied for prescribing an aerobic exercise.
Lactate threshold, blood lactate, bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy.
O-072 Body size and composition of Turkish National American Football League players
Koz and Velittin Balci
American Football has been started to be played in Turkey since 1993,
and has developed significantly. Despite its development, there has been
limited data about American football players' attributes in Turkey. The
purpose of this study was to present a profile of body size and composition
of Turkish National American Football League (NAFL) players prior to the
start of regular season. Forty-three members of a NAFL team were measured
for height, body mass, body mass index(BMI), percent body fat(PBF), body
type using bio impedance system during preseason training period of 2006-2007
RESULTS Descriptive results of the study were presented in Table 1. Significant relationships observed were as fol-lows (= represents not significant; > represents P < 0.05): Height: DL=LB=CB=OL=RB=WR=QB, weight: OL=DL>LB=RB=QB=WR=CB, mean body fat: OL=DL>LB=RB=WR=QB=CB, percent body fat: OL=DL=RB=LB=WR= CB=QB, Body Mass Index: OL>DL>LB=RB=WR=QB=CB.
1. Descriptive statistics of the study. Data are means (SD).
DISCUSSION These data provided a basic template for body composition among various positions of Turkish football players and allow comparisons with other studies. When the results of Turkish players were compared with other play-ers, it was seen that Turkish players were shorter and fatty than the others (Kremer et al., 2005). Size, strength, and endurance are obvious advantages for the successful player (Shields et al., 1984). Results of other studies indicate as the level of competition increases so do height, weight, and fat-free weight of the players (Williford et al., 1994). We concluded that Turkish players require strength and power training as to increase fat-free weight and strength. We con-cluded that Turkish players require strength training as to increase fat-free weight.