|Study||Protocol||Subjects||Creatine Dose||Exercise Performance|
|Izquierdo et al.
||Intermittent High-Intensity xercis1-RM MxS; CMJT; RPRT; MDRT||19 highly trained M handball players||20 g·day-1 × 5-d||Significant improvements on MxS, repetitive high-power exercise bouts & total reps to fatigue. Enhanced repeated sprint performance. Significant ↑ BM 0.6 kg|
|Mujika et al.
||Intermittent High-Intensity Exercise CMJT; 6 × 15 m sprints; IET; rec CMJT||17 highly trained M soccer players||20 g·day-1 × 5-7d||Improved repeated sprint performance & limited decay in jump ability. Significant ↑ BM 0.6 kg|
|Becque et al.
||Resistance ExerciseProgressive weight training 2 × wk; 6 wks arm-flexor strength training||23 resistance trained M||20 g·day-1 × 5-d + 2 g/d × 6 wks||29.9% increase in 1-RM arm-flexor muscular strength. Significant ↑ BM 2.0 kg; FFM 1.6 kg|
|Kreider et al.
||Resistance Exercise Progressive weight training2 × wk; 6 wks + 12 × 6 s max cycle sprints||25 NCAA division IA M collegiate American football players||20 g·day-1 × 5-d||Significant ↑ in bench press lifting volume & total lifting volume. Improved sprint performance in sprints 1 to 5. Significant ↑ BM 2.4 kg|
|Vandenberghe et al.
||Resistance Exercise Progressive weight training 3 × wk; 10 wks + intermittent isokinetic arm-flexion test||19 sedentary F||
20 g·day-1 × 4-d
20 g·day-1 × 4-d + 5 g·day-1 × 10 wks
No effect on arm-flexion torque or BC
Increase in 1-RM leg press, leg extension, squat & improved arm-flexion torque. Significant ↑ FFM 2.6 kg
|Volek et al.
Bench press + jump squat 5 sets × 10 repetitions
|13 resistance trained M||20 g·day-1 × 7-d||Significant ↑ in exercise performance. No measurable alteration in circulating testosterone or cortisol. Significant ↑ BM 1.3 kg|
|Jacobs et al.
Cycle to exhaustion at 125% VO2max.
|26 M & F varied training status||20 g·day-1 × 5-d||Significant ↑ in oxygen uptake, MAOD and time to exhaustion. Significant ↑ BM 0.7 kg|
|Dawson et al.
1 × 10 s max sprint
4 × 4 min max sprint 24 s rec between sprints
18 active but untrained M
22 active but untrained M
|20 g·day-1 × 5-d||
No effect on 1 × 10 s max sprint performance
Improved repeated sprint performance. Significant ↑ in total work& peak power
||Case study survey during 5 months of professional rugby league competition||17 professional rugby league players M||5 × loading cycles 20 g·day-1 × 4-d followed by a 3 wk 3-d abstinence period|