Table 3. The effect of creatine supplementation on power development in swimmers.
Subjects Supplementation Protocol Test Protocol Results
Burke et al. 1996 32 (18 Male; 14 Female)
17-25 yrs
National level swimmers
5g Creatine monohydrate + 2g
sucrose OR 5g polyglucose + 2g sucrose 4 x per day, 5 Days Randomised, double blinded
Cycle ergometer
2 x 10sec maximal effort sprints 10mins rest between sprints
No differences in work performed,
peak power, or time to peak power between
trials or between groups.
Grindstaff et al. 1997 18 (7 Male; 11 Female)~ 15 yrs Regionally / nationally competitive amateur swimmers 21g Creatine monohydrate + 4.2g
maltodextrin OR 25.2g maltodextrin 9 Days Randomised, double blinded
Swim bench ergometer 3x20sec maximal effort sprints 60sec rest between sprints Greater overall changes in work
performed by the creatine group than the
placebo group Significant improvements in work performed during sprint 1 only (7.8%) for the creatine group only. No differences in peak
power output between trials or
between groups.
Dawson et al. 2002 20 (10 Male; 10 Female)
~ 16 yrs
Competitive swimmers
Acute loading period: 5g creatine
monohydrate + 1g glucose polymer OR 6g glucose polymer 4 x per day, 5 days Maintenance period: 5g creatine monohydrate OR 5g glucose polymer
1 x per day, 22 days
Randomised, single blinded
Swim bench ergometer 2x30sec maximal effort sprints 10mins rest between sprints Significantly greater increases in total work performed in the creatine group (7.5%) compared to the placebo group (2.0%)