Table 3. Ball speeds (m·sec) as reported in the literature (M = Males; F = females). Data are means (±SD).
Research Study Subject characteristics Kick Approach(steps – angle) Ball speed(m×s-1)
N Age (Years) Training status
Asami and Nolte (1983) 4 N/A Professional Instep N/A 29.9 (2.9)
Narici et al. (1988) 11 25.1 (5.0) Amateurs Powerful N/A 20.0 (3.6)
Opavsky (1988) 6 N/A N/A Instep 6-8 steps 23.48 – 30.78
Luhtanen (1988) 29 10.3-17.1 Trained Instep 2 step 14.9 – 22.2
Kermond & Konz (1978) 1 22 Trained Punt 2 step 25.8 (2.2)
Isokawa and Lees (1988) 6 20 – 26 Trained Instep 1 step, 0° 1 step, 45° 1 step, 90° 18.73 (.95) 20.14 (1.58) 19.13 (1.64)
Poulmedis et al. (1988) 11 25.5 (3.0) Trained Instep N/A 27.08 (1.32)
Rodano and Tavana (1993) 10 17.6 (.5) Professional Instep 2 step 22.3 – 30.0
Dorge et al. (2002) 7 26.4 Skilled Instep 3 m, 0° 24.7 (2.5)
Ekblom (1994) N/A N/A Professional Instep N/A 32-35
Levanon & Dapena (1998) 6 Inter-collegiate Experienced Instep N/A 28.6 (2.2)
Barfield et al. (2002) 2 M 6 F 19-22 Elite players Instep 2 step, 45-60° 25.3 (1.51)(M) 21.5 (2.44) (F)
Barfield (1995) 18 20.7 (1.7) Amateurs Instep 2 step, 45-60° 26.4 (2.09)
Nunome et al. (2002) 5 High – school Experienced Instep N/A 28.0 (2.1)
Nunome et al. (2006a) 5 16.8(.4) Skilled Instep N/A 32.1 (1.7)
Nunome et al. (2006b) 9 27.6 (5.6) Experienced Instep N/A 26.3 (3.4)
Apriantono et al. (2006) 7 20.0 (2.1) Amateurs Instep N/A 28.4 (1.6)
Tol et al. (2002) 15 27.4 Amateurs Instep N/A 18.9 – 29.8
Roberts et al. (1974) 1 25 Experienced Toe 2 step 24.09
Tsaousidis & Zatsiorsky (1996) 2 College Amateurs Toe N/A 24.9 (1.1)
Taina et al. (1993) 15 18.1 (.3) 4th Division Instep N/A 96.02 (9.06 )Km/h
Trolle et al. (1993) 24 N/A Elite players Instep N/A 99.3-103.6 Km/h
Cometti et al. (1988) 95 25.0 (4.6) Professional Amateurs Instep Free run 106.37(12.89)Km/h 106.94(7.52)Km/h
Asai et al. (2002) 6 N/A Univ. Players Curve N/A 25.44 (.76)
Manolopoulos et al. (2006) 10 19.9 (.4) Amateurs Instep 2 step 27.9 (1.8)
Kellis et al. (2004) 10 21.3 (1.4) Trained Instep 1 step, 0° 1 step, 45° 1 step, 90° 19.79 (1.49) 20.41 (2.44) 18.51 (3.09)
Kellis et al. (2006) 10 22.6 (2.0) Amateurs Instep 2step, pre-fatigue 2step, post fatigue 24.69 (1.8) 21.78 (2.2)