Table 1. Prevalence of dietary supplement use in young athletes.
Author, year N Age (yrs) Prevalence 3 Most Common Supplements (%)
Sobal and Marquart, 1994 742 High School students 38% Vitamin C (25) Mulivitamins (19) Iron (11)
Kim and Keen, 1999 1,355 16-19 35.8% Vitamin C (41.2) Multivitamins (27) Calcium (10.7)
O'Dea, 2003 78 11-18 n/a Sports drinks (56.4) Vitamin/minerals (48.7) Energy drinks (42.3)
Ziegler et al., 2003 105 16 71% Multivitamin/mineral (M-61, F 83) Herbals (M-44, F-48) Multivitamin only ( F-42) Protein bars (M-38)
Bell et al., 2004 333 13-19 n/a Multivitamin/minerals (42.5) Protein (13.5) Energizers (6)
Nieper, 2005 32 18 62% Multivitamins (45) Vitamin C (35) Iron (30)
Scofield and Unruh, 2006 139 14-19 22.3% Meal replacement protein (23.7) Vitamin-minerals (19.4) Creatine (16)