Table 2. Differences in the thermoregulatory responses between pre-pubertal boys and girls exercising in hot and humid environments.
Response Females Males
Cardiac Output (Q̇) Higher Lower
Stroke Volume Lower Higher
Heart Rate Higher or similar Lower or similar
Skin blood flow ? ?
Blood pressure ? ?
Changes in blood volume ? ?
Core body temperature (TC) Higher or similar Lower or similar
Rate of increase in TC Slower or similar Faster or similar
Skin temperature Similar Similar
Heat loss (E) Similar Similar
Heat loss (R, K & C) ? ?
Fluid regulation
Sweating rate Lower Higher or similar
Sweat electrolyte loss Similar Similar
Sweat gland size ? ?
Sweat rate per gland Lower Higher
Number of HASG Similar Similar
VO2 Similar Similar
Abbreviations: ? = no available research, E = heat loss via evaporation, R, K & C = heat loss via radiation, conduction and convection, HASG = Heat activated sweat glands.