Table 1. Summary of some physical signs and EMG parameters for the exercised arm. Data are means (±SE).
DAY 1 PRE DAY 1 POST DAY 2 DAY 3 DAY 4 DAY 5 DAY 6 DAY 7
ROM (deg) 156 (3) 147 (4) * 147 (4)* 148 (4) 149 (4)* 151 (3) 152 (3) * 153 (3)
CIR (cm) 25.3 (.6) 25.6 (.5) 25.8 (.6)* 25.9 (.6)* 25.8 (.6)* 26.1 (.5)* 26.1 (.6) * 25.9 (.6)*
SOR 1.0 (.0) 1.7 (.3)* 3.0 (.3)* 3.4 (.5) * 3.0 (.4)* 2.4 (.4)* 1.7 (.3) * 1.5 (.2)
MDF IC50 slope (β1; Hz·s-1) -.55 (.06) -.62 (.08) -.81 (.01) -.57 (.08) -.41 (.11) -.42 (.08) -.45 (.08) -.59 (.04)
MDF IC80 slope (β1; Hz·s-1) -.90 (.16) -.54 (.09)* -.89 (.10) -.68 (.15) -.65 (.11) -.57 (.09) -.69 (.10) -.72 (.11)
RMS IC50 slope (β1) 011 (.005) .013 (.005) .005 (.004)* .002 (.003)* -.003 (.004) -.001 (.002)* .004 (.002) .002 (.002)*
RMS IC80 slope (β1) .017 (.009) .004 (.005) .001 (.002) .008 (.005) .010 (.004) .004 (.005) -.001 (.006) .005 (.004)
† indicates a significant interaction between main effects of arms × time (days);
* denotes significant (p<0.05) differences between day 1 pre-EE and other days.
Note: SOR refers to each subject’s perception of muscle soreness while arm was actively extended. ROM refers to active elbow range of motion. CIR refers to arm circumference at 8-cm above elbow. CIR at all anthropometrical landmarks (e.g. 4, 6, and 10-cm above elbow) followed a similar pattern, therefore, data was only presented from CIR at 8-cm. MDF refers to EMG median frequency. Derivation of regression intercept (β0) and slope (β1) are described in the text.