Table 2. Mean (±SD) changes in plasma cortisol, insulin, growth hormone and lactate concentrations during the two protocols (SP and PP) in trained (TR) and untrained (UTR) subjects.
Variable Control value
(S1)
24 min
(S2)
64 min
(S3)
85 min
(S4)
2h 85 min
(S5)
24 h
(S6)
Cortisol (nmol·L-1)
SP TR 500 (136) 521 (152) 491 (170) 515 (179) 479 (170) 521 (158)
PP TR 512 (164) 530 (176) 494 (148) 524 (136) 485 (127) 503 (155)
SP UTR 479 (155) 491 (182) 458 (179) 485 (161) 479 (152) 500 (124)
PP UTR 494 (133) 518 (182) 482 (142) 476 (176) 476 (130) 491 (136)
Insulin (UI·mL-1)
SP TR 13.1 (4.2) 5.8 (2.8) ** 6.5 (2.6) ** 4.6 (2.5) ** 8.2 (3.4) ** 12.0 (4.4)
PP TR 13.0 (4.5) 4.5 (3.1) ** 4.6 (2.1) ** 4.0 (3.2) ** 7.9 (3.6) ** 12.5 (4.3)
SP UTR 15.2 (4.1) 4.1 (2.3) ** 6.3 (2.0) ** 3.2 (1.4) ** 6.0 (3.5) ** 13.9 (4.5)
PP UTR 15.4 (4.3) 3.8 (2.4) ** 3.6 (2.2) ** 2.6 (1.6) ** 5.4 (3.1) ** 13.7 (3.1)
Growth hormone (ng·mL-1)
SP TR .73 (.12) 2.83 (1.26) ** 1.52 (.94) ** 4.4 (2.5) ** 1.84 (.96) ** .33 (.15)
PP TR .62 (.14) 2.28 (1.44) ** 1.83 (.74) ** 3.6 (2.7) ** 1.76 (.84) ** .32 (.10)
SP UTR .63 (.16) 2.18 (.91) ** 1.37 (.84) ** 4.6 (1.5) ** 1.68 (.52) ** .41 (.09)
PP UTR .76 (.17) 1.78 (1.04) ** 1.96 (.90) ** 4.6 (2.1) ** 1.92 (.60) ** .48 (.18)
Lactate (mmol·l-1)
SP TR 1.8 (.5) †† 6.1 (2.0) ** 4.5 (.8) ** 7.1 (.8) **† 1.9 (1.2) 1.9 (.5)
PP TR 1.9 (.4) † 5.7 (1.5) **† 3.4 (1.4) ** 6.3 (1.4) **† 1.9 (1.0) 1.8 (.5) †
SP UTR 2.7 (.6) 7.3 (2.0) ** 4.3 (1.3) ** 8.7 (1.3) ** 2.8 (.6) 2.2 (.4)
PP UTR 2.6 (.6) 7.6 (1.6) ** 3.3 (.4) ** 8.0 (1.4) ** 2.6 (.5) 2.8 (.8)
Glucose (mmol·l-1)
SP TR 4.70 (1.38) 4.38 (1.53) 4.60 (1.56) 4.34 (1.45) 4.49 (1.24) 4.66 (1.69)
PP TR 4.62 (1.75) 4.23 (1.23) 4.53 (1.53) 4.74 (1.55) 4.66 (1.50) 4.44 (1.12)
SP UTR 4.55 (1.52) 4.33 (1.50) 4.98 (1.43) 4.73 (1.33) 5.01 (1.28) 4.70 (1.54)
PP UTR 4.21 (1.28) 4.26 (1.44) 4.83 (1.23) 4.87 (1.26) 5.08 (1.16) 4.75 (1.20)
SP (45 min): 3 min at 25% of PAP - 21 min at 70% of PAP - 40 min rest - 21 at 85% of PAP; PP (85 min): 3 min at 25% of PAP - 21 min at 70% - 40 min at 30% of PAP - 21 at 85% of PAP; CV: Control Value; PAP: Peak Aerobic Power; S: Sample. ** p < 0.01 S1 vs other sampling; † p < 0.05, †† p < 0.01 TR vs UTR during the respective protocol.