Table 4 Body weight, plasma and urinary parameters, and relative values of effort test, before (D0) and after (D30) supplementation of GE or placebo in handball players. Values are means (±SEM) of 10 determinations performed in duplicate on samples from different subjects; n = 10 handball players.
Placebo n=10 Grape extract n=10
D0 D30 D0 D30
Weight (kg) 88.5 (5.7) 86.5 (5.4) 88.4 (5.7) 87.1 (5.7)
Biomarkers of antioxidant status and oxidative stress
ORAC (µmol·L-1) 13 678 (487) 13 946 (482) 13 336 (384) 15 132 (536) ***
FRAP (µmol·L-1 Fe2+) 1 168 (57) 988 (39) *** 1 110 (45) 1 060 (55) #
LDLox (mU·mL-1) 537 (174) 562 (189) 622 (202) 693 (229)
SOD (U·g-1 Hb) 2 381 (116) 2 549 (122) * 2 710 (157) ‡ 2 679 (113) #
GPx (µmol·min-1·g -1 Hb) 17.0 (1.4) 14.2 (1.5) * 18.8 (1.7) 18.0 (1.6) #
Catalase (mol·min-1.g -1 Hb) .580 (.056) .545 (.090) .640 (.044) .681 (.088)
Vitamin E (µg·mL-1) 12.0 (.5) 12.0 (.7) 12.2 (.6) 12.9 (.7) ##
Vit E/cholesterol ratio (µg·mg-1) 6.7 (.3) 6.9 (.3) 6.9 (.4) 7.5 (.5) *#
Vit C (µmol·L-1) 65.8 (9.1) 55.5 (9.1) 59.3 (5.1) 54.7 (5.8)
Isoprostanes (ng·mg-1 creatinine) 1.3 (.1) 1.7 (.2) * 1.3 (.2) 1.3 (.2) #
Biomarker of skeletal muscle damage
Creatine phosphokinase (UI·L-1) 704 (223) 725 (326) 790 (300) 464 (120)
General plasmatic biomarkers
Triglycerides (g·L-1) .47 (.04) .58 (.07) .53 (.05) .66 (.10)
Cholesterol (g·L-1) 1.81 (.1) 1.76 (.10) 1.78 (.10) 1.78 (.10)
Ferritin (µg·L-1) 69.1 (14.7) 57.8 (13.3) * 68.8 (15.5) 56.8 (13.0) *
Urea (g·L-1) .29 (.02) .28 (.01) .30 (.05) .27 (.06)
Triglycerides (g·L-1) 14.6 (.20) 14.56 (.19) 14.52 (.21) 14.87 (.30) *
Effort test
Performance (EnRJ45, %) -4.4 (6.1) 19.5 (9.7) †
Explosive power (RJ110, %) -3.57 (2.50) 2.82 (4.25)
Fatigue (RJ5, %) 2.95 (3.47) 10.85 (6.88)
*, ** and *** denote p < 0.05 , p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively, from the pre-treatment (D0) by paired t test. # and ## denote p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively, from the placebo post-treatment (D30) by paired t test. † significantly (p < 0.05) different from the placebo relative values by paired z test. ‡ significantly (p < 0.05) different from the placebo pre-treatment (D0).