Table 1 Muscle morphology of the right vastus lateralis, body composition and selected performance variables, in well-trained hammer throwers and physical education students. Data are means (±SD).
Variable Hammer throwers Controls
Type I muscle fibres (%) 39.9 (5.0) ** 51.4 (7.0)
Type IIa muscle fibres (%) 51.1 (9.0) ** 34.4 (6.0)
Type IIx muscle fibres (%) 9.0 (7.0) 14.3 (7.0)
CSA of Type I fibres (μm2) 5793 (670) 4979 (1266)
CSA of Type IIa fibres (μm2) 7703 (1171) ** 5676 (1270)
CSA of Type IIx fibres (μm2) 6554 (2040) 4893 (1260)
Type I fibre CSA (%) 33.9 (4.0) ** 49.0 (8.0)
Type IIa fibre CSA (%) 57.3 (9.0) ** 37.9 (8.0)
Type IIx fibre CSA (%) 8.8 (7.0) 13.1 (5.0)
Lean body mass total (kg) 85.9 (3.9) ** 62.7 (5.1)
Lean body mass arms (kg) 10.5 (1.5) ** 7.8 (.7)
Lean body mass legs (kg) 30.4 (1.9) ** 21.9 (2.3)
Body weight (kg) 116.4 (6.2) ** 78.7 (1.0)
Body fat (%) 22.4 (2.9) * 16.4 ± 5.9
Bone mineral density (g/cm2) 1.484 (.046) ** 1.264 (.08)
Backwards shot throw (m) 18.88 (1.80) ** 9.45 (.4)
Standing broad jump (m) 3.09 (12.00) ** 2.29 (21.00)
1RM Squat (kg) 245 (21) ** 81 (12)
* and
** denote p < 0.05 an < 0.01 respectively. CSA: cross sectional area.