Table 1 Comparison of demographic and anthropometric characteristics and dietary intakes derived from 7 day food diaries in gymnasts and controls. Values are expressed as mean (┬▒SEM).
Variable Controls (n=19) Gymnasts (n=25)
Age (y) 12.00 (.46) 13.00 (.70)
PA (mins/ week) 304.00 (31.21) 1308.60 (38.06) ***
Height (m) 1.50 (.03) 1.40 (.02)
Weight (Kg) 42.60 (3.10) 34.00 (1.44)**
BMI (Kg/m2) 19.20 (.77) 17.00 (.34) **
SFF (%) 23.50 (.77) 18.00 (.51) ***
MAC (cm) 23.60 (.73) 21.90 (.37) *
Macronutrients
Energy (Kcal) 1822.5 (66.3) 1740.50 (79.77)
CHO(g) 246.70 (12.27) 237.00 (11.14)
Fat (g) 74.70 (2.94) 69.50 (3.99) ***
Protein (g) 56.70 (2.42) 56.40 (2.26)
SFA (g) 28.80 (1.11) 25.70 (1.61) ***
MUFA (g) 23.80 (1.07) 22.90 (1.32)
PUFA (g) 11.50 (.65) 12.40 (.85)
Chol (mg) 170.70 (13.48) 163.60 (10.55) ***
Micronutrients
Se (mg) 36.10 (1.36) 34.00 (2.76) ***
Zinc (mg) 6.20 (.27) 5.90 (.30)
Vitamin A 635.30 (87.13) 727.70 (88.22)
Vit C (mg) 85.80 (11.85) 86.50 (14.23)
Vit E (mg) 4.90 (.67) 5.00 (.54)
Significance of difference compared to the controls;
* p < 0.05,
** p < 0.01,
*** p < 0.001. PA, physical activity; BMI, body mass index; SFF, skin fold fat; MAC, mid arm circumference; CHO, carbohydrates; SFA, saturated fatty acid; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; Chol, cholesterol; Se, selenium; Zn, zinc; Vit, vitamins.