Table 2 Changes in the measured variables before and after six months of interventions. Data are means (±SD).
Exercise (n=15) Control (n=10)
Variable Pre-test Post-test Change Pre-test Post-test Change
Body mass (kg) 66.9 (8.5) 67.1 (9.1 .2 (2.1) 68.4 (10.2) 68.1 (9.0) -.3 (2.3)
BMI (kg·m-2) 25.2 (2.5) 25.3 (2.7 .08 (.81) 25.8 (2.5) 25.8 (2.0) -.10 (.87)
Body fat (%) 24.1 (6.6) 22.7 (6.5 -1.3 (2.9)* 24.7 (5.6) 25.7 (5.7)† 1.0 (1.0)
Waist-hip ratio .93 (.04) .88 (.04)†† -.04 (.05)* .90 (.05) .92 (.07) .02 (.04)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 139 (17) 130 (19)† -9 (14) 135 (15) 137 (18) 2 (18)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74 (7) 73 (10) -1 (9) 73 (9) 77 (5) 4 (7)
VO2max (ml·kg-1·min-1) 41.3 (8.9) 44.4 (6.3) 3.1 (8.9) 37.3 (6.8) 37.6 (6.8) .3 (2.7)
Plasma glucose (mmol·L-1)
 Fasting 6.86 (1.40) 6.19 (1.47)† -.66 (1.11)** 6.24 (1.66) 6.69 (1.73)† .45 (.62)
 2-hr postchallenge 13.9 (5.8) 9.83 (4.33)†† -4.03 (3.65)* 11.11 (5.26) 10.58 (4.41) -.53 (3.19)
Serum insulin (μU·ml-1)
 Fasting 9.62 (3.23 7.37 (2.65)† -2.25 (3.11) 11.68 (4.30) 11.22 (4.79) -.46 (1.13)
 2-hr postchallenge 41.5 (18.5) 28.3 (11.2)†† -13.3 (11.4)** 49.0 (25.6) 50.0 (26.0) 1.0 (.8)
HbAlc (%) 6.69 (1.08) 6.14 (.71)†† -.55 (.58)* 5.92 (.81) 5.98 (.63) .06 (.46)
Total cholesterol (mmol·L-1) 5.47 (1.27) 4.47 (1.08)†† -.99 (.95)** 5.05 (.89) 5.41 (.96) .36 (.54)
Triglycerides (mmol·L-1) 1.85 (.97) 1.45 (.54) -.40 (.96)* 1.79 (1.07) 2.22 (1.21) .43 (.75)
HDL-C (mmol·L-1) .94 (.18) .85 (.22) -.09 (1.91) .94 (.35) .88 (.26) -.06 (.26)
LDL-C (mmol·L-1) 4.17 (1.15) 3.33 (1.03)†† -.82 (.89)** 3.75 (.90) 4.08 (.74) .34 (.70)
Peak torque of isokinetic plantar flexion
 at 30 degree·s-1 (Nm) 31.5 (18.5) 44.3 (20.2)† 12.7 (9.6)** 24.6 (14.7) 26.9 (13.1) 2.3 (6.4)
 at 60 degree·s-1 (Nm) 15.3 (8.2) 25.2 (15.4)† 10.4 (16.3) 13.7 (11.6) 16.2 (11.3) 2.5 ± 8.0
Peak torque of isokinetic dorsal flexion
 at 30 degree·s-1 (Nm) 14.5 (5.5) 17.9 (4.5)†† 3.5 (5.3) 10.6 (5.7) 11.5 (5.5) .9 (4.3)
 at 60 degree·s-1 (Nm) 9.6 (3.5) 12.0 (4.6)† 2.6 (3.9) 8.6 (2.8) 10.9 (5.9) 2.3 (5.7)
6-min walk (m) 538 (56) 596 (52)†† 58 (39)** 523 (50) 513 (54) -11 (30)
BMI, body mass index; VOmax, predicted maximal oxygen uptake; HbA, glycosylated hemoglobin; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
* p < 0.05;
** p < 0.01, comparison of the changes between the groups.
† p < 0.05;
†† p < 0.01, between the pre- and post-tests within the groups.