Table 2 Summary of the effects of growth factors.
Growth factors Function References
TGF-β1 Cellular migration and proliferation; cell replication, collagen synthesis production of extracellular matrix reconstruction of basement membrane of damaged myofibres and satellite cells,
Scar tissue formation such as in adult wounds
Molloy, 2003
Husmann, 1996
Kovacevic, 2011
TGF- β2 Increase of collagen production
Scarless wound healing such as in fetal wounds
Klein, 2002
Pryce, 2009
TGF- β3 Reduction of scar tissue formation after healing like in fetal wounds more favorable ratio of Collagen 1 to Collagen 3 ratio Kovacevic, 2011
VEGF Angiogenesis, tendon cell proliferation, type 1 collagen synthesis, muscle fibre reconstitution, angiogenesis in muscle Anitua, 2005; Arsic, 2004; Bachl, 2009; Engebretsen, 2010
PDGF Mesenchymal stem cell replication, ostoid production, endothelial cell replication, collagen synthesis, collagen and protein synthesis. Synthesis of other factors (e.g IGF-1) resulting in fibroblast proliferation and differentiation, collagen deposition, and angiogenesis Hsu, 2004
Everts P, 2006
Foster 2009
FGF Stimulator of angiogenesis and regulator of cellular migration and proliferation. Influencing angiogenesis and satellite cell numbers Molloy, 2003; Wright
Carpenter, 2004; Bachl N, 2009
IGF-1c (MGF) Autocrine/paracrine, more potent than IGF-1Ea at causing hypertrophy Philippou, 2007
IGF-1a Stimulates terminal differentiation of muscle cells into myotubes and promote stem cell-mediated muscle regeneration Philippou, 2007
EGF Proliferation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Synthesis and turn over of proteins of the extracellular matrix, including fibronectin, collagens, laminin, and glycosaminoglycans. Strong chemoattractant for fibroblasts and epithelial cells Borrione, 2010