Table 1. Hirtz’s battery test description (Hirtz et al., 1985).
Test Description
Backwards ball throw test Participants performed a one-hand overhead throw backwards with a tennis ball. They were instructed to center a ground target located 250 cm behind the performer. The target had a 20 cm diameter. After a training throw, participants performed five consecutive trials. Five points were assigned for each centered target. Scores of 4, 3, 2, 1 and 0 were assigned with increasing distance of the contact point of the ball from the target and the sum of score was computed. To assess upper limb kinesthetic discrimination ability which allows a fine differentiated control of the dynamic spatio-temporal parameters of movement.
Low jump test Participants jumped with the legs together from a plinth to a ground marking at a set distance (1 m). They were instructed to land with their heels on the marking. The test was performed twice and the distance of each heel from the marking was measured in centimeters for each trial. Distance values were collapsed across heels and trials to obtain one mean value. To assess lower limb kinesthetic discrimination ability.
Hanging target throw test One of the investigators of the study was in front of the participant, 3 m apart, swinging a hoop of 80 cm diameter. Participant tried to throw a tennis ball through the swinging hoop during its backswing. After one training throw, participants performed five consecutive trials. The points assigned were 2, 1 or 0 points, respectively, if the ball passed through, touched or passed outside the hoop. The sum of score was computed. To assess upper limb response orientation ability that allows modification of the position of the body in space and time in relation to a certain field of action.
Orientation shuttle run test The participant was instructed to run three times, as quickly as possible, from a start marker toward one of five numbered goal markers located behind him/her. The goal markers were 3m apart from her and 1.5m apart from another on a hypothetical circumference arc. The sequence of goal markings to be reached was not known previously. The next marking number was announced when the participant returned to the start ball and touched it for the next run to begin without pausing. After demonstration by an experimenter, participants performed the test that was scored in seconds. The best score was computed. To assess lower limb response orientation ability