Table 1. Summary of studies of criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility.
Reference Sample n Age (yrs) Test Hamstring extensibility Lumbar extensibility
Criter ♂ (r) ♀ (r) Criter ♂ (r) ♀ (r)
Ayala et al. (2011) Professional futsal players ♂=55♀=48 26.0 (4.5)23.0 (5.3) CSRMSRBSSR PSLRPSLRPSLR .62*.76*.47 .93*.73*.91*
Ayala et al. (2012) Recreationally active university students ♂=156♀=87 21.3 (2.5)20.7 (1.6) CSR PSLR .79*
Baker (1985) High and Middle school students ♀=100 14.1 (.8) CSR PSLR .64* MWM .28*
Baltaci et al.(2003) University students ♀=102 22.0 (1.0) CSRBSSRCHSR PSLRPSLRPSLR .63*-.53*.37*-.44*.22*-.16
Book (1989) Public and private schools students ♂=203♀=255 9-18 CSR PSLR .65* .81* MWM .33* .30*
Bozic et al. (2010) Physically active sport and PE white students ♂=84 21.3 (2.6) CSR PSLR .63*
Castro-Piñeroet al. (2009b) Caucasian children and adolescents ♂=29♀=27♂=16♀=15 6-12 13-17 CSRMSRCSRMSR PSLRPSLRPSLRPSLR .38*.34*.38*.26
Chung and Yuen (1999) University students ♂=52 20.7 (1.3) CSRMSR PSLRPSLR .77*.71* MWMMWM .23.24
Davis et al. (2008) University students ♂=42♀=39 23.6 (4.1)24.1 (4.3) CSRCSR PSLRPKE .65*.57*
García (1995) High school students ♂=54♀=55 15-18 CSRCSR PSLRAKE .64*.63* .67*.61* MWM .32* .28*
Hartman and Looney (2003) Schoolchildren ♂=85♀=88 6-12 CSRCSRBSSRBSSR PSLRAKEPSLRAKE .67*-.66*.40*-.40*.69*-.67*.50*-.47* .47*-.49*.52*-.54*.42*-.48*.54*-.57* MWMSIMMWMSIM .05.29*.00-.07.26*-.28* .07.16.06-.06.10-.10
Hui et al. (1999) University students ♂=62♀=96 21.1 (3.1)20.6 (2.1) CSRMSRBSSRMBSSRVSRMVSR PSLRPSLRPSLRPSLRPSLRPSLR .48*-.47*.45*-.45*.46*-.44*.44*-.45*.58*-.63*.57*-.62* .46*-.53*.41*-.47*.39*-.50*.35*-.47*.44*-.52*.46*-.51* MWMMWMMWMMWMMWMMWM .27*.24.24-.27*.17-.20.42*.38* .24*.22*.18-.15.22*-.22*.24*.28*
Hui and Yuen (2000) University students ♂=62♀=96 21.1 (3.1)20.6 (2.1) CSRBSSRVSRUSR PSLRPSLRPSLRPSLR .48*-.47*.46*-.44*.58*-.63*.61*-.67* .46*-.53*.39*-.50*.44*-.52*.50*-.54* MWMMWMMWMMWM .27*.24-.27*.42*.47*-.47* .24*.18-.15.24*.26*-.23*
Jackson and Baker (1986) School PE students ♀=100 14.1 (.8) CSR PSLR .64* MWM .28*
Jackson and Langford (1989) ? ♂=52♀=52 20-45 CSR PSLR .89* .70* MWM .59* .12
Jones et al. (1998) Exercise classes at a retirement community ♂=32♀=48 74.5 (5.7)74.0 (6.7) CSRBSSRCHSR PSLRPSLRPSLR .74*.70*.76* .71*.71*.81*
Kanbur et al. (2005) Non-prepubertal/ non-regularly exercised boys ♂=69 13-14 CSR PSLR .64*-.65*
Langford (1987) ? ♂=52♀=52 20-45 CSR PSLR .89* .70* MWM .60* .12
Lemmink et al. (2003) Independently living people over 55 ♂=49♀=71 67.7 (7.5)65.6 (8.6) CSRMSR PSLRPSLR .74*.54* .57*.57* AAOSAAOS .13.21 .31*.26*
Liemohn et al. (1994) University students ♂=20♀=20 24.0 (4.6)25.1 (6.3) CSRBSSR PSLRPSLR .72*.76* .70*.70* SIMSIM .29.32 .40.38
López-Miñarro et al. (2008) University students ♂=102♀=96 22.9 (3.2)23.2 (4.5) CSRVSR PSLRPSLR .56*-.59*.53*-.55* .72*-.74*.63*-.65* SIMSIM .32*.33* .14.29*
López Miñarro et al. (2008a) Canoeists ♂=44♀=22 13.3 (.6) CSR PSLR .77*-.73* .74*-.81*
López Miñarro et al. (2008b) Canoeists ?=66 13.3 (.6) CSR PSLR .70*-.68*
López Miñarro etal. (2008c) ? ♂=120♀=100 22.8 (3.1)23.1 (4.6) CSRBSSRUSR PSLRPSLRPSLR .56*-.59*.51*-.50*.54*-.58* .72*-.74*.68*-.68*.73*-.75*
López-Miñarro et al. (2009) University students ♂=76♀=67 23.5 (4.0)23.9 (5.4) CSRBSSR PSLRPSLR .56*-.59*.53*-.51* .75*-.73*.70*-.66*
López-Miñarro et al. (2010a) ? ♂=73♀=71 23.0 (3.5)23.1 (4.3) CSRMSR PSLRPSLR .44*-.48*.28*-.32* .75*-.73*.63*-.64*
López-Miñarro et al. (2010b) University students ♂=130♀=110 22.9 (3.2)23.2 (4.5) CSRMSRBSSRVSR PSLRPSLRPSLRPSLR .56*-.59*.41*-.45*.51*-.49*.53*-.55* .72*-.74*.62*-.63*.68*-.68*.63*-.65*
López-Miñarro and Rodríguez-García (2010c) Recreationally active university students: Low and normal flexibility ♂=120♂=120 22.9 (3.6) CSRCSR PSLRPSLR .31*-.41*.61*-.55*
López-Miñarro et al. (2011) Older women: Low, moderate and high flexibility ♀=36♀=35♀=35 65.3 (9.1) CSR PSLR .43*-.41*.54*-.57*.73*-.70*
López-Miñarro et al. (2012) CanoeistsKayakers ♂=51♂=60 17.5 (6.3) CSR PSLR .67*-.66*.59*-.59*
Mier (2011) Physically active adults ♂=30♀=30 25.0 (9.3)23.7 (7.9) CSRCSR PSLRPSLR .64*/.66* .79*/.81*
Minkler and Patterson (1994) Regular PE activity classes practitioners (mainly Caucasians) ♂=48♀=51 24.3 (4.7)21.5 (3.8) MSR PSLR .75* .66* MWM .40* .25
Miyazaki et al. (2010) Community-dwelling elderly ♂=42♀=119 72.6 (6.9) CSR PSLR .60* SMM .18
Orloff (1988) Gymnasium practitioners ♂=47♀=28 19-54 CSR ASLR .52*
Patterson et al. (1996) Middle school students (various ethnic origins) ♂=40♀=44 13.0 (.9)12.7 (.8) BSSR PSLR .72*-.68* .51*-.52* MWM .15-.10 .17-.25
Rodríguez-García et al. (2008) Fit sports activities practitioners ♂=125♀=118 22.9 (3.2)23.2 (4.5) CSR PSLR .56*-.59* .72*-.74* SIM .32* .14
Simoneau (1998) Physically active university students ♀=34 20.3 (.9) CSR PSLR .78* MWM .26
Yuen and Hui (1998) University students ♂=19♀=36 ? CSRMSRBSSRMBSSRVSRMVSR PSLRPSLRPSLRPSLRPSLRPSLR .52*-.57*.49*-.55*.46*-.44*.39*-.52*.54*-.60*.58*-.61* MWMMWMMWMMWMMWMMWM .18.27.16-.12.21-.17.19.25
This table includes all studies that met selection criteria, however, full or partial information was not included in the meta-analysis (in bold) due to duplication issues; ♂, males; ♀, females; ?, information unavailable; Criter: Criterion, CSR, Classic sit-and-reach test; MSR, Modified sit-and-reach test; BSSR, Back-saver sit-and-reach test; MBSSR, Modified back-saver sit-and-reach test; VSR, V sit-and-reach test; MVSR, Modified v sit-and-reach test; USR, Unilateral sit-and-reach test; CHSR, Chair sit-and-reach test; PSLR, Passive straight leg raise test; ASLR, Active straight leg raise test; PKE, Passive knee extension test; AKE, Active knee extension test; SMM, Spinal Mouse method; SIM, Single Inclinometer method; MWM, Macrae & Wright method; AAOSM, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons method;, Pearson´s for the left and right leg, respectively.
* Pearson´s statistically significant at < 0.05.