Table 2. Appendicular segmental boundary definitions for lower-body analysis using DXA
Segment Proximal End Distal End Regional Description
Thigh Femoral Head Tibiofemoral Joint Commences beneath the head of the Femur along the line of the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and inferior ramus of the pubis; Ending through knee axis, noted by the ‘tibial plateau’ (space between the femoral and tibial condyles).
Shank Tibiofemoral Joint Talocrural Joint Commences through the knee axis (described above); Ending through the ankle junction, noted as the articulation between the Talus, Tibia and Fibula, spanning beneath the medial and lateral malleoli.
Foot Talocrural Joint Distal Phalanges Commences through the ankle junction (described above); Ending at the most distal point of the phalanges of the foot.