Table 5. Self-reported use of doping and PEAS score means (M), standard deviations (±SD), test statistics and corresponding p-values by doping user groups.
Samples n UserM (±SD) Non-userM (±SD) U Mann Whitney p
Ciclotourists QH Challenge 2011 2022 48.87 (15.98)(n=164) 40.98 (11.95)(n=1858) 108775.500 .000
Ciclotourists QH Challenge 2012 382 46.18 (17.11)(n=33) 38.88 (12.27)(n=349) 4368.500 .022
Footballers 1120 38.48 (12.48)(n=48) 33.71 (10.33)(n=1072) 19911.500 .008
Professionals Footballers 273 40.18 (16.54)(n=11) 34.10 (10.11)(n=262) 1177.000 .303
Amateur Footballers 280 42.13 (10.45)(n=16) 35.24 (9.52)(n=264) 1321.500 .012
Elite U18 - U16 Footballers 272 49.75 (10.77)(n=4) 35.19 (11.35)(n=268) 171.000 .019
Elite Female Footballers 35 34.33 (4.89)(n=6) 29.24 (10.77)(n=29) 43.500 .055
Football Coaches Sport Sciences Students 167 38.28 (15.65)(n=18) 34.23 (10.28)(n=149) 1152.000 .329