Table 1. Characteristics of the present participants.
Indexes Men Women
65-74 years 75+ years 65-74 years 75+ years
n 402 221 570 359
Age, years 69 (67-71) 79 (77-82) 69 (67-71) 79 (77-82)
MoCA, point 23.3 (3.1) 21.4 (3.3) 23.1 (3.2) 20.8 (3.5)
HS, kg 36.4 (5.6) 31.4 (5.5) 23.3 (3.9) 20.2 (4.1)
LS, kg 36.6 (9.9) 29.3 (8.6) 24.1 (6.9) 18.8 (6.5)
SR, reps/sec .65 (.19) .55 (.17) .63 (.18) .52 (.16)
GS, m/sec 1.93 (.44) 1.68 (.41) 1.76 (0.37) 1.44 (.36)
OT, sec 109.3 (35.0-120) 22.9 (7.2-47.6) 80.6 (24.6-120) 16.7 (5.8-43.4)
Education, years 12 (10-14) 11 (9-13) 12 (9-12) 10 (9-11)
Economy*, % 32.1 47.5 38.2 48.2
PAEE, kcal/day 557.5 (162.8) 453.6 (144.7) 536.3 (134.5) 405.6 (115.8)
BMI, kg/m2 23.5 (2.7) 23.0 (2.8) 23.3 (3.4) 22.9 (3.3)
IADL, % 16.9 14.0 1.4 6.7
K6, % 24.9 27.1 30.4 32.6
Hypertension, % 38.1 37.1 33.0 46.5
Heart disease, % 12.9 25.8 5.8 18.7
Diabetes, % 19.7 17.6 9.6 9.7
Stroke history, % 4.5 5.0 1.6 3.1
Note: continuous variables are represented as mean (SD) or median (25th-75th percentiles).
* Percentage of participants answering “comfortable” and “relatively comfortable” in economic status;
† percentage of participants regarded as dependent in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL score of <5);
‡ percentage of participants classified as having depressive status (K6 score of ≥5). MoCA: Montreal Cognitive Assessment; HS: handgrip strength; LS: leg strength; SR: sit-to-stand rate; GS: gait speed; OT: one-leg stand time; PAEE: physical activity energy expenditure; BMI: body mass index; IADL: instrumental activities of daily living; K6: Kessler 6 psychological distress scale.