Table 2. Associations between each physical fitness measure and MoCA.
Independent variables n Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Regression coefficient(95% CI) p Regression coefficient(95% CI) p Regression coefficient(95% CI) p
HS, kg 1,529 .10 (.07-.14) <.001 .09 (.06-.13) <.001 .08 (.05-.12) <.001
LS, kg 1,473 .07 (.05-.09) <.001 .06 (.04-.08) <.001 .06 (.04-.08) <.001
SR, reps/sec 1,488 2.34 (1.42-3.26) <.001 1.95 (1.05-2.85) <.001 1.55 (.64-2.45) <.001
GS, m/sec 1,540 1.38 (.96-1.80) <.001 1.17 (.76-1.57) <.001 1.01 (.59-1.43) <.001
OT, sec 1,525 .02 (.01-.02) <.001 .01 (.01-.02) <.001 .01 (.01-.02) <.001
Note: Model 1: association between each physical fitness measure as an independent variable and MoCA as a dependent variable, with age and sex as covariates; Model 2: Model 1 plus years of education and BMI as covariates; Model 3: Model 2 plus other confounding factors (economic status, PAEE, IADL, K6, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, and stroke) as covariates. MoCA: Montreal Cognitive Assessment; HS: handgrip strength; LS: leg strength; SR: sit-to-stand rate; GS: gait speed; OT: one-leg stand time; BMI: body mass index; PAEE: physical activity energy expenditure; IADL: instrumental activities of daily living; K6: Kessler 6 psychological distress scale. 95% CI denotes 95% confidential interval of regression coefficient. Coefficients of determination (adjusted R-squared) in the regression analyses are as follows: Model 1: 0.145, 0.138, 0.132, 0.148, 0.157; Model 2: 0.197, 0.192, 0.183, 0.198, 0.205; Model 3: 0.210, 0.206, 0.196, 0.209, 0.217 (for HS, LS, SR, GS, and OT, in respective models).