Independent variables | n | Model 1 | Model 2 | Model 3 | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Regression coefficient |
p | Regression coefficient |
p | Regression coefficient |
p | ||

1,529 | .10 (.07-.14) | <.001 | .09 (.06-.13) | <.001 | .08 (.05-.12) | <.001 | |

1,473 | .07 (.05-.09) | <.001 | .06 (.04-.08) | <.001 | .06 (.04-.08) | <.001 | |

1,488 | 2.34 (1.42-3.26) | <.001 | 1.95 (1.05-2.85) | <.001 | 1.55 (.64-2.45) | <.001 | |

1,540 | 1.38 (.96-1.80) | <.001 | 1.17 (.76-1.57) | <.001 | 1.01 (.59-1.43) | <.001 | |

1,525 | .02 (.01-.02) | <.001 | .01 (.01-.02) | <.001 | .01 (.01-.02) | <.001 |

Note: Model 1: association between each physical fitness measure as an independent variable and MoCA as a dependent variable, with age and sex as covariates; Model 2: Model 1 plus years of education and BMI as covariates; Model 3: Model 2 plus other confounding factors (economic status, PAEE, IADL, K6, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, and stroke) as covariates. MoCA: Montreal Cognitive Assessment; HS: handgrip strength; LS: leg strength; SR: sit-to-stand rate; GS: gait speed; OT: one-leg stand time; BMI: body mass index; PAEE: physical activity energy expenditure; IADL: instrumental activities of daily living; K6: Kessler 6 psychological distress scale. 95% CI denotes 95% confidential interval of regression coefficient. Coefficients of determination (adjusted R-squared) in the regression analyses are as follows: Model 1: 0.145, 0.138, 0.132, 0.148, 0.157; Model 2: 0.197, 0.192, 0.183, 0.198, 0.205; Model 3: 0.210, 0.206, 0.196, 0.209, 0.217 (for HS, LS, SR, GS, and OT, in respective models).