Table 2. Between-group effect sizes and p values for covariate-adjusted results.
Effect size p value <
Local cryotherapyversus Control group Stretching versus Control group Local cryotherapyversus Stretching group Time Group Time × Group
Post- Follow-up Post- Follow-up Post- Follow-up
PROM for IR (°) 1.06 .69 .86 .68 .08 .02 <.001* <.001* <.001#
AROM for IR (°) .93 .56 .64 .46 .25 .06 <.001* <.001* <.001#
PROM for HA (°) .81 .57 .54 .64 .09 -.19 <.001* .002* .031#
AROM for HA (°) .51 .49 .50 .44 -.01 -.10 <.001* .001* .004#
SS for IR (cm) -.73 -.51 -.47 -.35 -.16 -.04 <.001* <.001* .003#
SS for HA (cm) -.50 -.43 -.32 -.28 -.09 -.07 <.001* <.001* <.001#
PPT for Infra (kg) .67 .60 .32 .53 .30 .15 <.001* <.001* <.001#
PPT for Post.D (kg) .50 .46 .44 .35 .19 .25 .001* <.001* .033#
* Significant time and group main effect;
Significant group by time for interaction.
PROM: passive range of motion, AROM: active range of motion, IR: internal rotation, HA: horizontal adduction, SS: stretch sensation, PPT: pressure pain threshold, Infra: infraspinatus muscle, Post. D: posterior deltoid muscle.