Table 2. Overview of the studies included in this review
Authors/Date Purpose Type of study Dimension analysed Participant/Setting Data collect/analysis Result Quality score
Hastie et al. (2013) Evaluate the extent to which two instructional units in physical education would lead to improvement in students’ skill and technical performance and knowledge Quantitative assessment Skill and tactical development performance Portugal 119 students (56 SE and 63 DI) 10th grade Equivalent of 20 track and field lessons Skill and knowledge tests Performance measures Independent-samples t test Despite improvements for both tests were found, SE education was more effective for shot put and hurdles. No improvements for knowledge in the traditional unit, while SE students improved their scores by more than 7%. Improvements in performance were found both units, but favouring SE. 6
Hastie (1998b) Examine the development of skill competence and tactical awareness and student’s perceptions and experiences during a SE unit Both qualitative and quantitative assessment Skill and tactical development Game play USA 6 students (4 boys and 2 girls) 6th grade 30 lesson of Ultimate Frisbee Videotape observation Student interviews Boys had more opportunities of participation. Girls did not considered these iniquities as problematic since continued to fell a useful part of the team. Skill development was more evident to low skill-level students, while tactical development to higher skill students. 5
Hastie & Sinelnikov (2006) Analysed participation and perceptions of students in a SE unit Both qualitative and quantitative assessment Skill development Russia 37 students (18 boys and 19 girls) 6th grade 18 Basketball lessons Videotape Interviews ANOVA Analytic induction of themes Results showed differences according to skill level, favouring higher skill students although both groups presented above 70%. 5
Pritchard et al. (2008) Comparison between two instructional models (SE and DI) on skill development, knowledge and game performance Quantitative assessment Skill and tactical development Game play USA 47 students 9th grade 20 Volleyball lessons Skill tests Knowledge tests GPAI MANOVA Students’ improvements in skill execution, tactical knowledge and performance. Higher improvements for SE students according to performance. 5
Hastie, Sinelnikov & Guarino (2009) Examined the development of skill and competence and tactical knowledge during a SE unit Quantitative assessment Skill and tactical development Russia 41 students 8th grade 18 Badminton lessons Skill test GPAI Knowledge test ANOVA Results showed improvements in skill development, performance and tactical knowledge for both boys and girls. However only according to knowledge boys didn’t show higher improvements 5
Cho et al. (2012) Investigate students’ motor skill development through a SE season Quantitative assessment Skill development USA 130 students: 66 sixth (35 boys and 31 girls) and 64 seventh (32 boys, 32 girls) grade students 21 (middle school classes) and 15 (junior high school classes) Volleyball lessons Protocol for skill assessment (SCPEAP) Repeated measures ANOVA Student volleyball form, communication, movement to ball, and effective play significantly improved throughout the season. 5
Hastie (1998a) Studied the participation and perceptions of a cohort of girls during a SE unit Both qualitative and quantitative assessment Students’ learning in general USA 35 girls 5th and 6th grade 20 Floor Hockey lessons Videotape observations of opportunities to responds Group interviews Quantitative: descriptive and ANOVA across gender Qualitative: inductive analysis Despite results showed improvement for both sexes, boys had more opportunities to take positions of power, higher success levels and more opportunities to respond during competition phase. Nevertheless girls continued to prefer SE 4
Hastie & Trost (2002) Student physical activity levels and skill development during a SE unit Quantitative assessment Skill development 19 male students Middle school 22 lessons Hockey Accelerometers (MVA & VPA) Skill tests Improvements for both higher and lower skill-level students 4
Mesquita, Farias & Hastie (2012) Analyse the impact of a hybrid SE-IGCM model on students’ skill and tactical development and performance Quantitative assessment Skill and tactical development Game play Portugal 26 students 5th grade 22 soccer lessons Knowledge test Game performance through GPAI Mann-Whitney e Wilcoxon Student’s improved their skill execution and tactical decisions, not only defensive but also offensive, especially for girls and low skill-level students. 4
Browne et al. (2004) Comparison between SE and DI concerning students’ learning, enthusiasm and affection Both qualitative and quantitative assessment Skill and tactical development Australia53 boys 2 8th grade classes20 Rugby lessons Assessment of skills by teacher and students’ self-evaluation Interviews with students SE students showed higher results concerning perceived learning and refer a better understanding of the game. 3
Calderón, Hastie & Martinez (2010) Teacher’s and students’ perceptions about SE implementation in Spain Qualitative assessment Skill and tactical development 48 students 1 teacher 8 “Balón Prisionero” lessons Teacher’s diary Teacher interviews Student questionnaires Student drawings Teacher’s reported students’ improvements, particularly technical and knowledge. Higher students’ perceived competence in the end of the unit when compared to the beginning 3
Gutiérrez et al. (2013) Expand the understanding of Spanish students’ perceptions of SE Qualitative assessment Spain 270 students from nine different schools 5th to 11th grade Student’s surveys Small-group interviews ANOVA Inductive analytic methods Students referred that they had more time to practice and play more games. By consequence, they referred more learning opportunities. Higher levels of perceived improvement in girls. 3
Carlson (1995) Perceptions and experiences of female students to SE Qualitative assessment Students’ learning in general Australia 8 female students 9th grade 20 Flag football lessons Teacher interview Student interviews Constant comparison of themes Frequencies of touches of ball Female students improved during the season and the length of the unit was perceived as a key element to these results 2
Curnow & MacDonald (1995) Analysis of gender iniquities on SE units Qualitative assessment Skill development Australia 25 students (12 boys and 13 girls) 6th and 7th grade 9 Touch Rugby lessons Student interviews Videotape observations Teacher diary Qualitative constant comparison of themes More learning opportunities and powerful roles to boys 2
Carlson & Hastie (1997) Analysis of social system within a SE unit Qualitative assessment Skill development Australia 88 students 8th and 9th grade 21 Netball and Football lessons Field notes Lesson videotape Student and teachers interviews Qualitative constant comparison of themes Lower skill-level participants were more likely to mentioned increased physical skills. 2
Hastie & Curtner-Smith (2006) Analyse teachers’ and students’ perceptions in a hybrid SE-TGfU unit Both qualitative and quantitative assessment Skill and tactical development Australia 29 students (11 boys and 18 girls) 6th grade 22 batting and fielding games lessons Critical incidents Tactical quizzes Game design forms Team interviews All students were able to understand, appreciate and implement rudimentary tactics. 2
Grant (1992) Teachers’ perceptions about students’ learning Qualitative assessment Skill and tactical development New Zealand 86 teachers 10th grade 34 schools 14 sports 16-22 lessons Teacher reflective diaries Thematic Analysis Improvements in student decision-making and enthusiasm 1
Cruz (2008) Analyse the views of students and teachers from their learning and teaching experiences Qualitative assessment Students’ learning in general Hong Kong 2 teachers 110 students Secondary school Participant observation Filed notes Teacher reflective journal Questionnaires to students Semi-structured interviews with teachers Teachers believed that SE would benefit students’ learning outcomes. 1
Brock et al. (2009) Explore student’s social interactions and their perspectives during a SE unit: influence of student status on group interactions and decisions Both qualitative and quantitative assessment Students’ learning in general USA 10 students (5 boys and 5 girls) Elementaryschool 26 lessons of modified soccer Student questionnaires Videotape and observations Informal interviews with teachers Student journals Field notes Student’s status appeared to have an influence on whose opinions counted and whose voices were heard and the decision-making process of the team captains. Low status students were silenced and those voices were no heard. The status characteristics of gender influenced the amount of playing time students received during the unit 1
Li & Cruz (2009) Analysed teachers’ and students’ experiences on SE Qualitative assessment Skill development Hong Kong 2 teachers 12 students 2 Basketball and Handball units Lesson videotaping Semi-structured interviews Content analysis and constant comparison One of the teachers referred improvements in handball skills. 1
Alexander et al. (1996) Report of the Australian national trial of SE: program change, educational impact, inclusivity Qualitative assessment Skill development Australia 53 teachers Teachers questionnaires Videoconference with teachers Student diary Deductive analysis of themes Improvements in skill development, especially for lower skilled students. 0
Alexander & Luckman (2001) Teacher’s perceptions about SE implementation Qualitative assessment Skill development Australia 337 teachers Teachers’ questionnaires Skill development it is difficult to achieve. When it occur favours low skill students 0
Clarke & Quill (2003) Analysis on the ways in which SE might enhanced students’ leanings Qualitative assessment Skill development United Kingdom 8th grade 6 lessons Interviews Field notes Teacher diaries Teachers show some scepticism according to student’s learning outcomes during SE units. 0