Table 3. Trunk kinematic parameter difference between adolescent and collegiate pitchers. Values are expressed as mean (±SD).
Variable Adolescent pitcher(n = 32) Collegiate pitcher(n = 30) ES
Angles
Upper Torso
Angle at MKH (°) -17.5 (51.6) -24.3 (16.9) .17
Angle at MAP (°) -35.3 (13.7) -32.9 (11.3) .18
Angle at SFC (°) -32.1 (13.8) -33.4 (9.5) .11
Angle at MER (°) 82.7(12) 79.8 (23.7) .15
Angle at REL (°) 118.0 (8.2) 122.5 (9.9) .49
Pelvis
Angle at MKH (°) -36.4 (19.2) -34.4 (16.7) .11
Angle at MAP (°) -11.1 (12.7) -17.6 (11.5) * .53
Angle at SFC (°) 16.7 (10.4) 14.8 (9.7) .19
Angle at MER (°) 93.8 (8.8) 90.2 (14.7) .30
Angle at REL (°) 100.9 (8.0) 101.9 (7.3) .12
Trunk twist
Angle at MKH (°) 18.9 (58.8) 10.1 (11.5) .20
Angle at MAP (°) -24.2 (16.3) -15.3 (14.6) * .56
Angle at SFC (°) -48.8 (14.5) -48.2 (11.6) .04
Angle at MER (°) -11.1 (12.2) -10.4 (12.7) .06
Angle at REL (°) 17.1 (9.3) 20.6 (8.3) .39
Trunk tilt
Angle at MKH (°) -3.5 (6.2) -3.6 (4.7) .02
Angle at MAP (°) -9.3 (8.5) -15.7 (6.2) ** .83
Angle at SFC (°) -2.1 (6.6) -4.0 (4.8) .33
Angle at MER (°) 15.5 (6.1) 12.9 (7.8) .37
Angle at REL (°) 29.3 (7.6) 25.4 (7.6) .51
Angular Velocities
Maximum Upper Torso Angular Velocity (°/s ) 1170.2 (161.8) 1273.0 (141.9) ** .66
Maximum Pelvis Angular Velocity (°/s ) 727.4 (118.9) 714.0 (71.2) .13
Maximum Trunk Positive Twist Angular Velocity (°/s ) 821.7 (175.5) 871.2 (149.9) .30
Maximum Trunk Negative Twist Angular Velocity (°/s ) 359.0 (145.9) 397.2 (118.2) .28
Maximum Trunk Tilt Angular Velocity (°/s ) 381.3 (82.9) 339.6 (59.3) * .57
Upper Torso Angular velocity at MER (°/s) 1052.1 (188.1) 1172.5 (235.8) * .56
Pelvis Angular velocity at MER (°/s) 306.4 (129.6) 376.7 (119.2) * .55
ES; Effect Size value. MKH; Maximal stride knee height. MAP; Maximal anterior push-off force. SFC; Stride foot contacts ground. MER; Maximum shoulder external rotation. REL; Ball release.
* p < 0.05, Significant difference between adolescent and collegiate pitchers.
** p < 0.01, Significant difference between adolescent and collegiate pitchers