Table 5. Lower-limb joint torque difference between adolescent and collegiate pitchers. Values are expressed as mean (±SD).
Variable Adolescentpitcher (n = 32) Collegiatepitcher (n = 30) ES Adolescentpitcher (n = 32) Collegiatepitcher (n = 30) ES
Joint torques Pivot leg Stride leg
Hip Coronal Plane (Adduction:+; Abduction:- )
Joint torque at MKH (Nm/kg) -.5 (.3) -.4 (.3) .17 -.1 (.1) -.1 (.1) .02
Joint torque at MAP (Nm/kg) -1.1 (.6) -1.8 (.9)** .86 .2 (.3) .1 (.3) .27
Joint torque at SFC (Nm/kg) .7 (.8) -.4 (1.1) .35 .7 (.3) 1.0 (.4) ** 1.02
Joint torque at MER (Nm/kg) -1.7 (.5) -1.5 (.8) .22
Joint torque at REL (Nm/kg) -1.6 (.6) -1.9 (.4) .62
Hip Transverse Plane (Internal Rotation:+; External Rotation:- )
Joint torque at MKH (Nm/kg) -.1 (.1) -.0 (.1) .30 .0 (.1) .1 (.1) .21
Joint torque at MAP (Nm/kg) .3 (.3) .7 (.6)** .80 -.1 (.1) -.1 (.1) .07
Joint torque at SFC (Nm/kg) -.3 (.3) -.2 (.3) .31 -.2 (.1) -.4 (.2) ** 1.06
Joint torque at MER (Nm/kg) .5 (.3) .4 (.4) .27
Joint torque at REL (Nm/kg) .4 (.3) .5 (.3) .24
Hip Sagittal Plane (Flexion:+; Extension:- )
Joint torque at MKH (Nm/kg) .0 (.3) .1 (.7) .36 .1 (.2) .1 (.3) .22
Joint torque at MAP (Nm/kg) 51.0 (10.0) -.5 (1.0) * .58 .1 (.3) .2 (.2) .22
Joint torque at SFC (Nm/kg) 20.5 (14.2) -1.0 (.7) * .54 .0 (.2) -.1 (.4) .33
Joint torque at MER (Nm/kg) -2.0 (.7) -2.2 (.7) .22
Joint torque at REL (Nm/kg) -1.9 (.7) -2.2 (.8) .47
Knee Sagittal Plane (Flexion:+; Extension:- )
Joint torque at MKH (Nm/kg) -.1 (.3) -.3 (.4) .39 .0 (.1) .0 (.1) .22
Joint torque at MAP (Nm/kg) -1.0 (.6) -1.7 (.7) .91 .1 (.1) .1 (.1) .29
Joint torque at SFC (Nm/kg) .3 (.4) .4 (.4) .11 -.1 (.2) -.1 (.2) .21
Joint torque at MER (Nm/kg) -1.1 (.8) -1.5 (.6) * .58
Joint torque at REL (Nm/kg) -.5 (1.0) -1.0 (.9) * .53
Ankle Sagittal Plane (Dorsiflexion:+; Plantar flexion:- )
Joint torque at MKH (Nm/kg) .3 (.2) .3 (.2) .29 .0 (.0) .0 (.0) .26
Joint torque at MAP (Nm/kg) 1.1 (.5) 1.0 (.5) .16 .0 (.0) .0 (.0) * .62
Joint torque at SFC (Nm/kg) .7 (.5) .4 (.4) * .59 .0 (.1) -.1 (.0) .38
Joint torque at MER (Nm/kg) .9 (.5) .7 (.5) .25
Joint torque at REL (Nm/kg) .9 (.5) .8 (.5) .13
Maximum joint torques Pivot leg Stride leg
Max Hip Adduction Torque (Nm/kg) 1.0 (.9) .8 (.8) .17 .8 (.3) 1.0 (.4) ** .83
Max Hip Abduction Torque (Nm/kg) 2.0 (.5) 2.4 (.8) * .66 1.9 (.5) 2.0 (.5) .27
Max Hip Internal Rot Torque (Nm/kg) .6 (.3) .9 (.5) * .64 .6 (.3) .6 (.3) .15
Max Hip External Rot Torque (Nm/kg) .4 (.3) .4 (.3) .26 .3 (.1) .4 (.2) ** .87
Max Hip Flexion Torque (Nm/kg) .2 (.4) .6 (.9) * .59 .0 (.2) -.1 (.4) .12
Max Hip Extension Torque (Nm/kg) 1.8 (.6) 1.5 (.7) .45 2.4 (.6) 2.5 (.7) .18
Max Knee Flexion Torque (Nm/kg) .5 (.4) .5 (.4) .13 .2 (.4) .0 (.4) .49
Max Knee Extension Torque (Nm/kg) 1.6 (.5) 2.2 (.6) ** .93 1.7 (.4) 1.9 (.4) * .55
Max Ankle Dorsiflexion Torque (Nm/kg) 1.2 (.5) 1.2 (.4) .04 1.0 (.5) .9 (.5) .14
ES; Effect Size value. MKH; Maximal stride knee height. MAP; Maximal anterior push-off force. SFC; Stride foot contacts ground. MER; Maximum shoulder external rotation. REL; Ball release. Max; Maximum. Rot; Rotation.
* p < 0.05, Significant difference between adolescent and collegiate pitchers.
** p < 0.01, Significant difference between adolescent and collegiate pitchers