Table 2. The Maximum voluntary muscle contraction on pivot foot of different squat width in pivot throwing motion (%MVC). Data are means (┬▒standard deviation).
Muscle Phase Pivot throwing p-value Notes Weight-shift: p-value Notes
General-stance Wide-stance General-stance Wide-stance
Pivot foot
GASTRO Squat * 22.8 (7.3) 35.1 (14.0) .039 wide>general 29.4 (12.9) 30.1 (11.0) .818 NS
Ascending 92.2 (10.3) 91.0 (9.8) .801 NS 102.1 (10.3) 97.1 (23.8) .435 NS
Stride 93.6 (15.0) 100.5 (16.0) .360 NS
Acceleration 92.4 (13.7) 83.4 (15.0) .170 NS 85.8 (16.2) 89.8 (23.3) .650 NS
Follow through 16.3 (7.8) 12.0 (4.7) .129 NS 14.2 (5.4) 12.3 (3.3) .238 NS
TIB ANT Squat * 51.4 (17.4) 74.0 (16.2) .005 wide>general 50.2 (16.5) 58.6 (12.8) .201 NS
Ascending 73.6 (11.8) 75.5 (14.3) .413 NS 63.3 (8.1) 63.9 (7.8) .830 NS
Stride 76.4 (7.8) 67.7 (19.8) .141 NS
Acceleration * 32.7 (13.6) 19.6(11.0) .024 general>wide 33.2 (9.0) 24.9 (12.0) .038 general>wide
Follow through 7.8 (6.9) 7.0 (4.0) .719 NS 10.5 (3.7) 13.1 (8.6) .252 NS
BIC FEM Squat * 34.5 (17.0) 71.0 (16.0) .000 wide>general 74.9 (9.4) 47.7 (15.3) .001 general>wide
Ascending * 102.2 (28.0) 127.1 (29.8) .038 wide>general 111.0 (24.0) 70.5 (10.4) .000 general>wide
Stride 143.0 (19.4) 128.4 (20.7) .096 general>wide
Acceleration 132.2 (26.1) 141.9 (26.5) .273 NS 131.0 (15.5) 142.6 (38.4) .341 NS
Follow through 43.6 (20.3) 42.3 (20.3) .825 NS 42.3 (16.9) 28.4 (12.7) .009 wide>general
QUAD Squat 42.5 (12.2) 42.9 (9.2) .919 NS 51.7 (15.6) 53.2 (22.0) .812 NS
Ascending * 43.1 (12.2) 32.9 (4.0) .030 general>wide 84.9 (16.4) 65.7 (16.9) .008 general>wide
Stride 53.0 (21.8) 50.6 (22.4) .690 NS
Acceleration 15.3 (6.0) 19.6 (9.3) .127 NS 17.6 (11.5) 21.8 (14.3) .366 NS
Follow through 9.1 (9.8) 7.8 (3.8) .649 NS 13.8 (5.0) 17.4 (10.9) .273 NS
Stride foot
GASTRO Squat * 47.5 (15.9) 74.2 (13.9) .000 wide>general 64.7 (18.4) 44.4 (15.9) .008 general>wide
Ascending 112.9 (21.4) 91.4 (24.7) .069 NS 100.5 (12.5) 100.8 (23.5) .974 NS
Stride 88.8 (19.1) 99.9 (19.4) .095 NS
Acceleration 58.2 (18.4) 50.4 (15.3) .247 NS 74.8 (24.3) 67.2 (29.2) .454 NS
Follow through 30.2 (9.1) 42.4 (21.6) .085 NS 50.1 (23.3) 39.4 (6.3) .136 NS
TIB ANT Squat * 19.7 (8.3) 48.3 (10.1) .000 wide>general 44.6 (10.6) 37.2 (6.9) .107 NS
Ascending * 69.8 (9.6) 45.4 (10.9) .000 general>wide 52.6 (12.0) 48.1 (17.4) .507 NS
Stride 44.9 (8.8) 42.6 (12.0) .571 NS
Acceleration * 57.0 (14.8) 32.9 (14.1) .002 general>wide 33.8 (13.6) 33.5 (10.0) .934 NS
Follow through 18.7 (10.5) 18.6 (7.2) .965 NS 16.6 (4.2) 16.0 (6.1) .766 NS
BIC FEM Squat * 87.2 (11.4) 54.9 (8.0) .000 general>wide 74.4 (19.4) 57.8 (18.0) .034 general>wide
Ascending * 45.0 (11.6) 41.7 (13.0) .546 NS 54.6 (15.7) 44.8 (16.8) .029 general>wide
Stride 36.2 (9.8) 33.1 (12.3) .362 NS
Acceleration 39.5 (14.6) 29.0 (11.0) .086 NS 38.0 (11.8) 42.3 (21.2) .467 NS
Follow through 30.7 (12.8) 28.3 (9.9) .493 NS 33.3 (12.7) 37.9 (18.9) .478 NS
QUAD Squat * 25.6 (5.5) 45.4 (10.2) .000 wide>general 88.3 (10.7) 37.2 (12.2) .000 general>wide
Ascending * 94.2 (22.5) 103.8 (22.8) .170 NS 85.2 (13.3) 67.0 (18.0) .002 general>wide
Stride 101.9 (25.1) 102.2 (15.3) .965 NS
Acceleration 117.9 (33.2) 131.2 (33.1) .184 NS 118.2 (21.6) 110.7 (17.2) .210 NS
Follow through 20.1 (9.6) 18.2 (4.0) .527 NS 16.4 (5.2) 16.1 (7.7) .918 NS
GASTRO = Gastrocnemius; TIB ANT = Tibialis anterior; BIC FEM = Biceps femoris; Quadriceps * p < 0.05; NS: no significant.