Table 1. Comparison between mean values of all three knee joint angles in four turn phases using skis of three different waist widths. Means and standard deviations (in parentheses) by groups of skis, ANOVA results and paired sample t-tests are presented.
Joint motion Turn phases N angle(°) n=6 M angle(°) n=6 W angle(°) n=6 ANOVA, F statistics p-sph‡ Paired sample t-tests§
Abduction I 6.3 (1.5) 5.8 (2.5) 6.6 (2.9) 0.94 0.38 NA
S1 12 (2.6) 9.9 (2.6) 9.9 (1.2) 11.34 0.003* 1,2
S2 15.5 (3.3) 12.2 (2.6) 12.3 (1.9) 18.3 <0.001* 1,2
C 12.6 (2.6) 9.3(2) 8.4 (3.3) 43.26 <0.001* 1,2
Int. rotation I 3.9 (1.2) 3 (1.8) 3.2 (2.8) 1.1 0.37 NA
S1 8.1 (2.6) 6.6 (3.4) 5.7 (3.7) 7.7 0.01*
S2 10.4 (2.6) 8.7 (4.6) 7.4 (3.5) 9.62 0.005* 2,3
C 13.3 (3.0) 13.7 (2.9) 10.4 (1.9) 29.7 <0.001* 2,3
Flexion I 60 (11.1) 59.8 (10.1) 53.7 (10.9) 6.54 0.02* 2
S1 49.5 (9.5) 47.6 (6.6) 45.6 (7.9) 4.9 0.06 2,3
S2 52.3 (10.2) 47.3 (6.3) 45.6 (7.2) 12.01 0.009* 1,2
C 60.3 (10.1) 57.9 (6.3) 51.8 (7.3) 8 0.024* 2,3
N, narrow skis; M, medium skis; W wide skis
°, degrees; n, numbers of subjects skiing on each skis; I, initiation phase; S1, steering phase 1; S2, steering phase 2; C, completion phase; Int, internal.
*significant (p<0.05) difference,
† trend (0.05≤p≤0.1) of difference
p-sph‡ p-sphericity adjusted (GG:Eps<0.75 HF:Eps>0.75)
§ significance level of p<0.05. Significant difference between three pairs of skis is indicated by numeral: 1, narrow versus medium; 2, narrow versus wide; 3, medium versus wide; NA, not applicable when ANOVA p>0.05