Table 2. Markers of inflammation and soreness in response to eccentric strength exercise. Data are means (±SE) or counts (%).
DHA
(n = 14)
Placebo
(n = 13)
Between-group
p-value
Soreness rating, palpated, cm
Baseline
48h follow- up
Change
Within group P value

.0 (.0)
4.3 (.4)
4.3 (.4)
<.0001

.0 (.0)
5.6 (.5)
5.6 (.5)
<.0001

.02
Soreness rating, full elbow extension, cm
Baseline
48h follow- up
Change
Within group P value

.0 (.0)
5.1 (.5)
5.1 (.5)
<.0001

.1 (.1)
5.5 (.6)
5.4 (.5)
<.0001

.62
Inability to fully extend elbow at 48h follow-up, count (%) 4 (29%) 11 (85%) .006
Passive elbow joint angle, degrees of extension
Baseline
48h follow-up
Change
Within group P value

167(2)
155(3)
- 12(2)
<.0001

166(1)
155(2)
- 11(2)
.0004

.78
Arm circumference, cm
Baseline
48h follow- up
Change
Within group P value

27.2 (1.1)
27.6 (1.1)
.4 (.1)
.0002

28.6 (1.5)
29.1 (1.5)
.5 (.1)
<.0001

.75
Skin temperature, ˚C
Baseline
48h follow- up
Change
Within group P value

31.0 (.2)
30.7 (.0.2)
-.3 (.2)
.16

30.7 (.3)
30.5 (.4)
-.2 (.2)
.34

.55
C-Reactive Protein (salivary), log pg/mL
Baseline
48h follow-up
Change
Within group P value
7.67 (.21)
7.71 (.21)
.03 (.06)
.55

8.50 (.36)
8.58 (.36)
.07 (.09)
.46

.74
Within-group p-values are from paired t-tests comparing baseline and 48h follow-up values. Between-group p-values are from analysis of covariance tests in which change-scores were the dependent variables, study group (DHA vs. placebo) was the independent variable, and age, BMI, and baseline values for the outcome were included as covariates. Between-group comparisons of frequencies (percentages) were performed with a Fisher’s exact test. Soreness ratings were collected by using a 10 cm visual analog scale.