NON-CIRCULAR | CIRCULAR | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

Clipless | Simple | Clipless | Simple | |

Pedal downstroke at maximal force |
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Fmax (N) |
83.2 (10.0) | 67.1 (9.2) | 80.2 (11.6) | 66.9 (8.6) |

Finst_{max} (N) |
118.4 (12.6) | 90.6 (11.2) | 121.3 (17.3) | 94.4 (10.1) |

Pedal downstroke at maximal velocity |
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Vmax (m^{.}s^{-1}) |
15.5 (.3) | 14.3 (1.2) | 15.5 (.9) | 14.2 (1.0) |

Finst_{max} (N) |
63.3 (11.7) | 54.3 (9.6) | 55.6 (6.9) | 55.3 (13.8) |

Pedal downstroke at maximal power |
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Pmax (W^{.}kg^{-1}) |
10.7 (1.9) | 9.6 (1.2) | 10.1 (1.1) | 9.4 (1.0) |

Fopt (N) |
53.4 (9.2) | 49.1 (5.8) | 51.2 (6.6) | 48.6 (6.9) |

Vopt (m^{.}s^{-1}) |
13.7 (1.3) | 13.3 (1.6) | 13.4 (1.2) | 13.3 (1.5) |

Finst_{max} (N) |
80.5 (10.0) | 71.1 (11.4) | 74.2 (11.1) | 68.9 (14.8) |

Fmax: average maximal force, Vmax: average maximal velocity, Pmax: average maximal power, Finst_{max}: instantaneous maximal force, Fopt: average optimal force at Pmax, Vopt: average optimal velocity at Pmax.