Table 3. Before- and after-training data for all outcome measures with main analyses of variance results. Data are means (±SD).
Measure Normoxic training group Hypoxic training group ANOVA p (η2) values
Before After p Before After p Time Group Interaction
Aerobic exercise capacity variable
VO2max (mL/kg/min) 58.1 (8.6) 60.5 (7.2) .048 54.6 (6.6) 60.1 (7.2) .001 .000* (.598) .492 (.038) .157 (.139)
Anaerobic power variables
Relative peak anaerobic power (watt/kg) 10.1 (1.2) 10.7 (1.7) .328 10.8 (1.2) 12.1 (1.5) .001 .008* (.402) .115 (.168) .281 (.082)
Relative mean anaerobic power (watt/kg) 8.1 (0.6) 8.2 (0.8) .809 8.0 (0.9) 8.3 (1.1) .092 .161 (.136) .902 (.001) .288 (.080)
Muscular performance and hormone response variables
Bench press 1 RM (kg) 68.4 (22.4) 70.7 (21.0) .033 68.2 (20.1) 76.8 (23.9) .001 .000* (.712) .793 (.005) .004* (.461)
Lat pull down 1 RM (kg) 81.5 (26.1) 80.9 (23.6) .685 78.4 (27.0) 86.2 (29.2) .001 .003* (.474) .932 (.000) .001* (.553)
Bench press exercise volume at 70% 1 RM (kg) 616(202) 1096(325) .000 613(181) 1321(390) .000 .000* (.930) .431 (.045) .020* (.329)
Lat pull down exercise volume at 70% 1 RM(kg) 652(209) 1120(333) .000 627(216) 1316(434) .000 .000* (.923) .575 (.023) .027* (.304)
Growth hormone (ng/mL) 2.8 (.9) 5.2 (1.0) .000 3.2 (0.9) 8.5 (1.4) .000 .000* (.986) .000* (.741) .000* (.890)
Insulin like growth factor-1 (ng/mL) 219(20) 228(19) .000 219(14) 242(10) .000 .000* (.934) .004* (.451) .000* (.744)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (pg/mL) 31.2 (8.0) 29.2 (4.2) .253 31.5 (4.5) 33.7 (3.9) .023 .897 (.001) .370 (.058) .032* (.288)
Swimming performance variables
50 m (seconds) 29.2 (3.1) 28.8 (2.4) .307 28.2 (2.9) 27.2 (3.0) .000 .004* (.451) .375 (.057) .221 (.105)
400 m (seconds) 285.9 (24.4) 283.0 (26.2) .292 290.6 (16.1) 284.4 (16.9) .000 .004* (.466) .780 (.006) .227 (.102)
VO2max: maximal oxygen consumption, RM: repetition maximum
* p < 0.05 significant interaction or main effect
† p < 0.05 compared to before training in each groups.