Table 2. Cycle and pole characteristics of and external power output by the faster (FS) and slower (SS) male (M, n = 41) and female (F, n = 41) skiers on the different inclines during a classical XC race and their interactions with sex and level of performance.
Parameter Flat (0°) Intermediate (3.5°) Uphill (7.1°) Steep uphill (11°) ANOVA
F M F M F M F M Incline Incline
x Sex
Incline
x PERF
Cycle velocity (m/s) Total 6.77 (.60)* S P 4.51 (.53)* S P 3.23 (.37)* S P 2.23 (.37)* S P F3,72=3869
p<0.001
F3,72=26
p<0.001
NS
FS 6.30 (.23) 7.42 (.18) 4.26 (.20) 5.13 (.21) 3.09 (.17) 3.66 (.16) 2.23 (.25) 2.66 (.29)
SS 6.03 (.35) 6.86 (.32) 3.82 (.31) 4.63 (.23) 2.73 (.16) 3.31 (.18) 1.89 (.14) 2.09 (.26)
Cycle rate (Hz) Total .96 (.08)* S .91 (.10)* 1.01 (.08)* S 1.12 (.07)* S P F3,72=168
p<0.001
NS NS
FS 1.00 (.09) .93 (.05) .92 (.10) .92 (.11) 1.06 (.09) .99 (.08) 1.18 (.07) 1.10 (.06)
SS .97 (.09) .92 (.04) .90 (.07) .90 (.10) 1.03 (.07) .97 (.04) 1.12 (.04) 1.09 (.05)
Cycle length (m) Total 7.05 (.92)* S 4.96 (.73)* S P 3.20 (.46 )* S P 1.99 (.35)* S P F3,72=2683
p<0.001
F3,72=33
p<0.001
NS
FS 6.33 (.62) 8.00 (.48) 4.66 (.48) 5.63 (.60) 2.92 (.21) 3.72 (.27) 1.89 (.19) 2.41 (.31)
SS 6.25 (.62) 7.46 (.48) 4.24 (.33) 5.21 (.59) 2.68 (.25) 3.40 (.21) 1.69 (.13) 1.93 (.25)
Absolute poling time (s) Total .27 (.02)*P .42 (.06)*S .47 (.03)P .47 (.04)P F3,72=1090
p<0.001
F3,72=2.7
p=0.051
F3,72=5.3
p=0.002
FS .27 (.01) .27 (.02) .44 (.09) .39 (.04) .45 (.03) .45 (.03) .44 (.04) .46 (.04)
SS .29 (.02) .28 (.02) .44 (.03) .41 (.03) .49 (.04) .47 (.02) .51 (.03) .48 (.03)
Absolute pole swing time (s) Total .78 (.08)* S .71 (.11)* .53 (.06)* S .42 (.04)* S F3,72=656
p<0.001
NS NS
FS .74 (.09) .82 (.06) .69 (.14) .73 (.11) .51 (.06) .57 (.07) .40 (.03) .45 (.04)
SS .75 (.08) .82 (.05) .70 (.08) .73 (.11) .49 (.06) .56 (.04) .39 (.03) .44 (.04)
Relative pole swing time (%) Total 74.0 (2.4)* S P 63.0 (5.4)* S 53.3 (3.3)* S P 47.1 (3.7)* S P F3,72=1776
p<0.001
NS F3,72=3.6
p=0.018
FS 73.1 (2.4) 75.4 (1.7) 61.0 (8.8) 65.4 (2.6) 53.0 (2.3) 55.5 (3.2) 47.4 (3.3) 49.5 (3.2)
SS 72.3 (2.9) 75.0 (1.3) 61.4 (3.0) 64.1 (3.1) 49.7 (2.5) 54.3 (2.4) 43.2 (3.0) 47.8 (2.4)
External power output (W) Total 230(50)* S P 310(77)* S P 329(74)* S P 387(100)* S P F3,72=440
p<0.001
F3,72=23
p<0.001
F3,72=10.2
p<0.001
FS 189(17) 292(14) 251(25) 400(39) 275(29) 415(26) 324(50) 515(44)
SS 181(23) 253(24) 231(32) 349(30) 251(32) 366(35) 283(38) 409(38)
Total: all FS and SS men and women combined; All values presented are means (±SD). NS = not significant, PERF = Performance
* significantly different from all other inclines
† significantly different from 0° and 3.5°
S significant differences between women and men on the same incline
P significant differences between FS and SS on the same incline