Table 4. Core temperature, cortisol, and cytokine concentrations before and after the 3-stage cycling tests in naturally-menstruating women (WomenNM) and women using oral contraception (WomenOC). Values are mean (±standard deviation).
WomenNM WomenOC
TEMP HEAT TEMP HEAT
Tc (°C) Baseline 37.1 (.2) 37.0 (.4) 37.5 (.2) 37.6 (.3)
Pre 37.0 (.2) 37.0 (.3) 37.4 (.1) 37.5 (.3)
Post 38.1 (.3) #§ 38.4 (.4) #§* 38.2 (.2) #§ 38.5 (.3) #§*
Cortisol(nmol/L) Baseline 13.62 (7.82) 17.26 (9.08) 16.66 (5.85) 20.59 (8.71)
Pre 7.88 (4.19) 14.09 (11.35) 14.18 (3.47) 17.88 (3.66)
Post 6.57 (4.09) #§ 12.76 (10.24) * 11.89 (5.05) 15.11 (5.70)
IL-1β(pg/mL) Pre .38 (.33) .43 (.36) .29 (.12) .36 (.15)
Post .42 (.33) .42 (.39) .32 (.12) .34 (.10)
Post .39 (.27) .37 (.38) .28 (.09) .31 (.13)
IL-1ra(pg/mL) Baseline 50.22 (38.81) 48.90 (38.43) 27.12 (13.79) 35.05 (14.75)
Pre 45.22 (37.57) 49.36 (35.94) 32.28 (12.32) 44.43 (28.34)
Post 50.46 (39.03) 54.86 (35.35) 32.11 (9.81) 41.90 (29.69)
IL-6(pg/mL) Baseline 5.24 (9.71) 3.33 (7.41) .95 (.80) 1.44 (1.24)
Pre 4.92 (9.02) 3.07 (6.45) .77 (.87) 1.45 (1.18)
Post 5.82 (10.17) 3.88 (8.12) .84 (.83) 1.07 (.83)
IL-8(pg/mL) Baseline 4.66 (.89) 9.56 (3.76) * 3.91 (1.40) 10.68 (10.33) *
Pre 4.17 (.73) 8.78 (4.60) * 3.67 (1.41) 7.43 (4.10) *
Post 5.02 (1.02) 5.88 (1.94) # 4.28 (2.30) 5.69 (4.14) #
IL-10(pg/mL) Baseline 4.58 (2.60) 4.20 (.62) 4.20 (1.78) 4.91 (2.33)
Pre 4.76 (2.47) 4.36 (1.38) 4.61 (2.26) 5.30 (2.40)
Post 4.98 (2.92) 3.99 (.55) 4.38 (1.96) 4.59 (2.01)
TNF-α(pg/mL) Baseline 9.28 (11.48) 6.88 (10.28) 4.68 (41.79) 4.31 (1.49)
Pre 9.41 (11.92) 7.55 (8.21) 4.63 (3.03) 4.93 (1.42)
Post 9.42 (10.82) 7.02 (8.48) 3.25 (1.38) 4.12 (.65)
TEMP = 3-stage cycling test performed in temperate conditions; HEAT = 3-stage cycling test performed in hot conditions; Pre = after 1 hr resting in the testing conditions; Post = immediately after completion of the 3-stage cycling test; Tc = core temperature.
† Significantly different from WomenNM at the same time point (p ≤ 0.004).
* Significantly different from the TEMP trial at the same time point (p ≤ 0.004).
# Significantly different from baseline in the same trial (p ≤ 0.024).
§ Significantly different from pre-exercise values in the same trial (p < 0.001).