Table 2. Within and between group comparison of the performance outcomes of the citrus flavonoid group and placebo group, with corresponding p-values. Values are expressed as mean (± SEM).
Variables Citrus Flavonoid (CF) (n=19) Placebo (n=20)
Test 1 Test 2 ΔT2-T1 < P1† Test 1 Test 2 ΔT2-T1 <P2‡ <P3§
Weight (kg) 74.1 (1.8) 74.2 (1.74) .1 (.1) .406 74.8 (1.9) 74.7 (1.9) -.1 (.4) .718 .529
Abs P (W) 298(11) 313(10) 14.9 (3.9) .001 301(11) 304.3 (11.4) 3.8 (3.2) .243 .032
Rel P (W·kg-1) 4.0 (.1) 4.2 (.1) .2 (.1) .002 4.0 (.2) 4.1 (.1) .1 (.1) .328 .077
HR (BPM) 170(4) 169(3) -1(2) .578 176(3) 177(3) 1(1) .206 .276
Av VO2 51.1 (1.6) 52.0 (1.2) .9 (.7) .235 49.6 (2.1) 50.2 (1.8) .6 (.6) .330 .736
Es VO2max 57.9 (1.6) 57.9 (± 1.3) .0 (.7) .988 56.5 (1.8) 56.7 (1.6) .2 (.9) .784 .826
VO2/Power ratio .176 (.005) .167 (.004) -.009 (.002) .001 .170 (.004) .171 (.004) .001 (.002) .534 .001
PP output (W) 360(36) 378(40) 18(23) .444 307(22) 279(20) -29(17) .123 .116
Abs P: Absolute power; Rel P: Relative power; HR: Heart rate; Av VO2: Average VO2 (mL·kg-1·min-1); Es VO2max: Estimated VO2max (mL·kg-1·min-1); PP output: Peak power output.
†P1; P-value of within CF group differences between Test 2 and Test 1 (ΔT2-T1); compared using a paired t-test
‡P2; P-value of within placebo group differences between Test 2 and Test 1 (ΔT2-T1); compared using a paired t-test
§P3; P-value of the difference between pre- and post-treatment between the CF and placebo group using a mixed ANOVA.