Table 1. Mean (┬▒standard deviation) and effect sizes of ROM and PPT values.
Measures Dominant Limb Non-dominant limb
Intervention Baseline Pre Post Baseline Pre Post
PPT (kg) TENS 16.1 (5.61) 16.7 (6.75) 18.6 (7.47) 15.7 (4.38) 16.4 (4.89) 17.3 (5.70)
RM 17.3 (8.02) 18.4 (8.16) 17.1 (8.91) 16.6 (7.43) 17.8 (8.63) 18.5 (8.52)
BOTH 15.9 (7.82) 18.2 (7.40) 17.5 (7.48) 16.1 (8.32) 17.1 (6.79) 18.0 (7.43)
CTRL 16.8 (8.40) 17.7 (8.35) 18.8 (10.09) 15.7 (7.40) 16.3 (6.89) 17.3 (7.72)
ROM(degrees) TENS 74.1 (14.05) 71.1 (13.71) 67.2 (12.53) 77.3 (13.10) 74.8 (14.16) 73.2 (15.78)
RM 69.5 (9.47) 65.8 (9.47) 63.7 (9.28) 74.3 (7.64) 72.3 (10.99) 67.5 (11.90)
BOTH 69.3 (10.36) 67.0 (13.11) 63.4 (11.87) 76.9 (13.67) 73.9 (13.36) 71.3 (14.07)
CTRL 72.4 (12.38) 70.3 (13.27) 66.9 (12.15) 75.7 (10.51) 74.6 (12.00) 70.9 (9.78)
Effect Sizes and (Power) Dominant Limb Non-dominant limb
Intervention Baseline to Pre Baseline to Post Pre-Post Baseline to Pre Baseline to Post Pre-Post
PPT (kg) TENS .09 .38 .26 (.84) .16 .31 .51 (.16)
RM .13 .23 .15 (.45) .14 .23 .10 (.21)
BOTH .30 .21 .10 (.24) .13 .24 .12 (.35)
CTRL .10 .19 .12 (.31) .08 .19 .13 (.35)
ROM(degrees) TENS .21 .51 .30 (.90) .18 .27 .10 (.27)
RM .39 .61 .22 (.72) .21 .69 .41 (.99)
BOTH .19 .53 .28 (.91) .22 .40 .21 (.6)
CTRL .16 .44 .26 (.84) .09 .47 .33 (.95)
Estimated post-hoc statistical power are bolded and illustrated in brackets.