Table 1. Address position variables and club-head kinematics at impact for the mediolateral ball positions (mean ± standard deviation).
  1 Left 1/2 Left Ref. 1/2 Right 1 Right P
  Address position variables
Shoulder rotation (°) -1.5 ± 2.7 -0.8 ± 3.1 -0.8 ± 3.2 -0.4 ± 3.0 0.3 ± 2.5 <0.001*
Pelvic rotation (°) 0.3 ± 3.2 0.8 ± 3.2 1.1 ± 3.3 1.0 ± 2.8 1.2 ± 3.0 0.11
Shoulder side-bending (°) -13.0 ± 2.7 -12.4 ± 2.9 -12.0 ± 2.6 -11.6 ± 2.7 -11.5 ± 2.5 <0.001*ǁǁ
Pelvic side-bending (°) -0.6 ± 3.1 -0.7 ± 3.3 -0.3 ± 2.7 -0.4 ± 3.2 0.1 ± 2.9 0.07
Trunk flexion (°) 41.5 ± 3.1 41.5 ± 2.9 41.5 ± 2.9 41.4 ± 3.0 41.1 ± 2.9 0.07
Left hip flexion (°) 33.9 ± 7.8 33.8 ± 7.4 34.1 ± 7.5 33.3 ± 7.3 33.6 ± 7.8 0.29
Right hip flexion (°) 36.5 ± 8.1 36.8 ± 8.0 37.1 ± 8.2 36.6 ± 7.7 36.9 ± 8.3 0.57
Left knee flexion (°) 21.6 ± 7.6 20.9 ± 7.15 21.5 ± 7.4 20.8 ± 7.4 21.4 ± 7.3 0.19
Right knee flexion (°) 24.0 ± 5.6 23.6 ± 5.4 24.4 ± 5.5 24.1 ± 5.7 24.3 ± 5.8 0.15
Left ankle dorsiflexion (°) 4.7 ± 4.1 4.6 ± 3.6 4.9 ± 3.7 4.6 ± 3.6 4.8 ± 3.8 0.57
Right ankle dorsiflexion (°) 5.1 ± 2.9 4.9 ± 2.8 5.2 ± 2.9 5.1 ± 3.2 5.2 ± 3.1 0.67
Hand height (mm) 653.7 ± 22.3 656.6 ± 21.4 655.8 ± 21.8 657.6 ± 21.3 657.0 ± 21.6 0.03*§
Head height (mm) 1515.5 ± 48.3 1518.5 ± 49.0 1517.9 ± 51.7 1519.2 ± 49.8 1517.1 ± 48.8 0.12
Absolute arm angle (°) -1.9 ± 3.1 -1.8 ± 2.8 -1.3 ± 2.8 -1.8 ± 2.7 -1.6 ± 2.9 0.02‡‡
Club-face aim angle (°) -3.4 ± 2.8 -2.9 ± 2.8 -2.1 ± 3.1 -1.9 ± 2.8 -1.4 ± 2.8 <0.001*ǁǁ**
Lie angle (°) 52.5 ± 2.4 52.7 ± 2.3 52.8 ± 2.3 52.9 ± 2.3 52.9 ± 2.3 0.012*
Loft angle (°) 18.5 ± 2.8 18.2 ± 2.8 18.6 ± 3.4 18.5 ± 3.0 18.6 ± 2.7 0.36
Left VGRF (%BW) 56.8 ± 4.5 55.6 ± 6.4 54.3 ± 5.8 53.2 ± 5.8 52.0 ± 4.9 <0.001*ǁǁ††‡‡
Right VGRF (%BW) 43.2 ± 4.5 44.4 ± 6.4 45.7 ± 5.8 46.8 ± 5.8 48.0 ± 4.9 <0.001*ǁǁ††‡‡
COP Y (mm) 0.2 ± 5.6 0.1 ± 7.2 0.00 -1.8 ± 7.3 -1.6 ± 5.0 0.37
COP X (mm) -0.4 ± 9.1 -0.5 ± 7.2 0.00 0.5 ± 6.8 -0.1 ± 6.1 0.99
  Club-head kinematics at impact
Club-face aim (○) 3.5 ± 2.4 2.1 ± 2.4 1.7 ± 2.4 3.7 ± 2.4 5.6 ± 2.4 0.002*ǁǁ††
Club-head speed (m/s) 35.6 ± 2.5 35.5 ± 2.3 35.5 ± 2.0 35.6 ± 2.1 35.6 ± 2.5 0.97
Club path (m/s) 0.8 ± 1.5 0.8 ± 1.4 0.9 ± 1.6 1.5 ± 1.7 2.1 ± 1.7 <0.001*ǁǁ††§§
Angle of attack (m/s) -1.7 ± 0.9 -1.8 ± 1.5 -2.5 ± 1.1 -2.4 ± 1.6 -2.9 ± 1.1 0.003*ǁǁ
Post hoc significant differences (p < 0.05) for pairwise comparisons:
*1 left vs. 1 right,
†1 left vs. 1/2 right,
‡1 left vs. reference,
§1 left vs. 1/2 left,
ǁǁ1/2 left vs. 1 right,
¶1/2 left vs. 1/2 right,
**1/2 left vs. reference,
††reference vs. 1 right,
‡‡reference vs. 1/2 right,
§§1/2 right vs. 1 right.
COP Y: change of the center of pressure along the mediolateral direction, COP X: change of the center of pressure along the anteroposterior direction, VGRF: vertical ground reaction force, BW: body weight.